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Effect of hypoxia and Beraprost sodium on human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation: the role of p27kip1.

Kadowaki M, Mizuno S, Demura Y, Ameshima S, Miyamori I, Ishizaki T - Respir. Res. (2007)

Bottom Line: To clarify the biological effects of hypoxic air exposure and BPS on HPASMC, the cells were cultured in a hypoxic chamber under various oxygen concentrations (0.1-21%).We also demonstrated that BPS and 8-Br-cAMP suppressed HPASMC proliferation under both hypoxic and normoxic conditions by blocking p27kip1 mRNA degradation.Furthermore, p27kip1 gene silencing partially attenuated the effects of BPS and partially restored hypoxia-induced proliferation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Third Department of Internal Medicine, University of Fukui, 23-3 Eiheiji-cho, Matsuoka, Yoshida-gun, Fukui, Japan. maik@u-fukui.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypoxia induces the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) in vivo and in vitro, and prostacyclin analogues are thought to inhibit the growth of PASMC. Previous studies suggest that p27kip1, a kind of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, play an important role in the smooth muscle cell proliferation. However, the mechanism of hypoxia and the subcellular interactions between p27kip1 and prostacyclin analogues in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (HPASMC) are not fully understood.

Methods: We investigated the role of p27kip1 in the ability of Beraprost sodium (BPS; a stable prostacyclin analogue) to inhibit the proliferation of HPASMC during hypoxia. To clarify the biological effects of hypoxic air exposure and BPS on HPASMC, the cells were cultured in a hypoxic chamber under various oxygen concentrations (0.1-21%). Thereafter, DNA synthesis was measured as bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. The p27kip1 mRNA and protein expression and it's stability was measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Further, we assessed the role of p27kip1 in HPASMC proliferation using p27kip1 gene knockdown using small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection.

Results: Although severe hypoxia (0.1% oxygen) suppressed the proliferation of serum-stimulated HPASMC, moderate hypoxia (2% oxygen) enhanced proliferation in accordance with enhanced p27kip1 protein degradation, whereas BPS suppressed HPASMC proliferation under both hypoxic and normoxic conditions by suppressing p27kip1 degradation with intracellular cAMP-elevation. The 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), a cAMP analogue, had similar action as BPS in the regulation of p27kip1. Moderate hypoxia did not affect the stability of p27kip1 protein expression, but PDGF, known as major hypoxia-induced growth factors, significantly decreased p27kip1 protein stability. We also demonstrated that BPS and 8-Br-cAMP suppressed HPASMC proliferation under both hypoxic and normoxic conditions by blocking p27kip1 mRNA degradation. Furthermore, p27kip1 gene silencing partially attenuated the effects of BPS and partially restored hypoxia-induced proliferation.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that moderate hypoxia induces HPASMC proliferation, which is partially dependent of p27kip1 down-regulation probably via the induction of growth factors such as PDGF, and BPS inhibits both the cell proliferation and p27kip1 mRNA degradation through cAMP pathway.

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Cell cycle analysis of HPASMC exposed to hypoxia and BPS. Cultured HPASMC were exposed to 21% and 2% oxygen with or without 10 μM BPS for 24 hours. Cells were harvested and DNA fragmentation was analyzed using flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining. Area definitions on DNA histograms: C, G0/1 phase; D, S phase; E, G2/M phase. Moderate hypoxia (2% oxygen) increased, whereas BPS significantly decreased ratios of S plus G2/M and G2/M phases. Histograms are representative and bar graph shows data expressed as means ± SE (n = 4). Open bars, ratios of G2/M phases; solid bars, ratios of S plus G2/M phases. *P < 0.05 versus 21% oxygen control; †P < 0.05 versus 2% oxygen without BPS.
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Figure 2: Cell cycle analysis of HPASMC exposed to hypoxia and BPS. Cultured HPASMC were exposed to 21% and 2% oxygen with or without 10 μM BPS for 24 hours. Cells were harvested and DNA fragmentation was analyzed using flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining. Area definitions on DNA histograms: C, G0/1 phase; D, S phase; E, G2/M phase. Moderate hypoxia (2% oxygen) increased, whereas BPS significantly decreased ratios of S plus G2/M and G2/M phases. Histograms are representative and bar graph shows data expressed as means ± SE (n = 4). Open bars, ratios of G2/M phases; solid bars, ratios of S plus G2/M phases. *P < 0.05 versus 21% oxygen control; †P < 0.05 versus 2% oxygen without BPS.

Mentions: Cell cycle visualization by PI staining showed that about 95% of the cells cultured in serum-free DMEM was synchronized at the G0/1 phase and that the cell cycle was arrested (quiescent state). Moderate hypoxia significantly promoted cell cycle progression and forced the cells to enter the S and G2/M phases compared with the control under normal oxygen conditions and BPS significantly suppressed the cell cycle progression of cells that were serum-stimulated under hypoxic conditions (Fig. 2).


Effect of hypoxia and Beraprost sodium on human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation: the role of p27kip1.

Kadowaki M, Mizuno S, Demura Y, Ameshima S, Miyamori I, Ishizaki T - Respir. Res. (2007)

Cell cycle analysis of HPASMC exposed to hypoxia and BPS. Cultured HPASMC were exposed to 21% and 2% oxygen with or without 10 μM BPS for 24 hours. Cells were harvested and DNA fragmentation was analyzed using flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining. Area definitions on DNA histograms: C, G0/1 phase; D, S phase; E, G2/M phase. Moderate hypoxia (2% oxygen) increased, whereas BPS significantly decreased ratios of S plus G2/M and G2/M phases. Histograms are representative and bar graph shows data expressed as means ± SE (n = 4). Open bars, ratios of G2/M phases; solid bars, ratios of S plus G2/M phases. *P < 0.05 versus 21% oxygen control; †P < 0.05 versus 2% oxygen without BPS.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2164950&req=5

Figure 2: Cell cycle analysis of HPASMC exposed to hypoxia and BPS. Cultured HPASMC were exposed to 21% and 2% oxygen with or without 10 μM BPS for 24 hours. Cells were harvested and DNA fragmentation was analyzed using flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining. Area definitions on DNA histograms: C, G0/1 phase; D, S phase; E, G2/M phase. Moderate hypoxia (2% oxygen) increased, whereas BPS significantly decreased ratios of S plus G2/M and G2/M phases. Histograms are representative and bar graph shows data expressed as means ± SE (n = 4). Open bars, ratios of G2/M phases; solid bars, ratios of S plus G2/M phases. *P < 0.05 versus 21% oxygen control; †P < 0.05 versus 2% oxygen without BPS.
Mentions: Cell cycle visualization by PI staining showed that about 95% of the cells cultured in serum-free DMEM was synchronized at the G0/1 phase and that the cell cycle was arrested (quiescent state). Moderate hypoxia significantly promoted cell cycle progression and forced the cells to enter the S and G2/M phases compared with the control under normal oxygen conditions and BPS significantly suppressed the cell cycle progression of cells that were serum-stimulated under hypoxic conditions (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: To clarify the biological effects of hypoxic air exposure and BPS on HPASMC, the cells were cultured in a hypoxic chamber under various oxygen concentrations (0.1-21%).We also demonstrated that BPS and 8-Br-cAMP suppressed HPASMC proliferation under both hypoxic and normoxic conditions by blocking p27kip1 mRNA degradation.Furthermore, p27kip1 gene silencing partially attenuated the effects of BPS and partially restored hypoxia-induced proliferation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Third Department of Internal Medicine, University of Fukui, 23-3 Eiheiji-cho, Matsuoka, Yoshida-gun, Fukui, Japan. maik@u-fukui.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypoxia induces the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) in vivo and in vitro, and prostacyclin analogues are thought to inhibit the growth of PASMC. Previous studies suggest that p27kip1, a kind of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, play an important role in the smooth muscle cell proliferation. However, the mechanism of hypoxia and the subcellular interactions between p27kip1 and prostacyclin analogues in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (HPASMC) are not fully understood.

Methods: We investigated the role of p27kip1 in the ability of Beraprost sodium (BPS; a stable prostacyclin analogue) to inhibit the proliferation of HPASMC during hypoxia. To clarify the biological effects of hypoxic air exposure and BPS on HPASMC, the cells were cultured in a hypoxic chamber under various oxygen concentrations (0.1-21%). Thereafter, DNA synthesis was measured as bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. The p27kip1 mRNA and protein expression and it's stability was measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Further, we assessed the role of p27kip1 in HPASMC proliferation using p27kip1 gene knockdown using small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection.

Results: Although severe hypoxia (0.1% oxygen) suppressed the proliferation of serum-stimulated HPASMC, moderate hypoxia (2% oxygen) enhanced proliferation in accordance with enhanced p27kip1 protein degradation, whereas BPS suppressed HPASMC proliferation under both hypoxic and normoxic conditions by suppressing p27kip1 degradation with intracellular cAMP-elevation. The 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), a cAMP analogue, had similar action as BPS in the regulation of p27kip1. Moderate hypoxia did not affect the stability of p27kip1 protein expression, but PDGF, known as major hypoxia-induced growth factors, significantly decreased p27kip1 protein stability. We also demonstrated that BPS and 8-Br-cAMP suppressed HPASMC proliferation under both hypoxic and normoxic conditions by blocking p27kip1 mRNA degradation. Furthermore, p27kip1 gene silencing partially attenuated the effects of BPS and partially restored hypoxia-induced proliferation.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that moderate hypoxia induces HPASMC proliferation, which is partially dependent of p27kip1 down-regulation probably via the induction of growth factors such as PDGF, and BPS inhibits both the cell proliferation and p27kip1 mRNA degradation through cAMP pathway.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus