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Streptococcal receptor polysaccharides: recognition molecules for oral biofilm formation.

Yoshida Y, Palmer RJ, Yang J, Kolenbrander PE, Cisar JO - BMC Oral Health (2006)

Bottom Line: Streptococcal gene clusters for RPS biosynthesis were identified, sequenced, characterized and compared.These motifs account for RPS-mediated recognition, whereas other features of these polysaccharides are more closely associated with RPS antigenicity.The structural, functional and molecular properties of streptococcal RPS support a recognition role of these cell surface molecules in oral biofilm formation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-4352, USA. yasuoy@iwate-med.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: Strains of viridans group streptococci that initiate colonization of the human tooth surface typically coaggregate with each other and with Actinomyces naeslundii, another member of the developing biofilm community. These interactions generally involve adhesin-mediated recognition of streptococcal receptor polysaccharides (RPS). The objective of our studies is to understand the role of these polysaccharides in oral biofilm development.

Methods: Different structural types of RPS have been characterized by their reactions with specific antibodies and lectin-like adhesins. Streptococcal gene clusters for RPS biosynthesis were identified, sequenced, characterized and compared. RPS-producing bacteria were detected in biofilm samples using specific antibodies and gene probes.

Results: Six different types of RPS have been identified from representative viridans group streptococci that coaggregate with A. naeslundii. Each type is composed of a different hexa- or heptasaccharide repeating unit, the structures of which contain host-like motifs, either GalNAcbeta1-3Gal or Galbeta1-3GalNAc. These motifs account for RPS-mediated recognition, whereas other features of these polysaccharides are more closely associated with RPS antigenicity. The RPS-dependent interaction of S. oralis with A. naeslundii promotes growth of these bacteria and biofilm formation in flowing saliva. Type specific differences in RPS production have been noted among the resident streptococcal floras of different individuals, raising the possibility of RPS-based differences in the composition of oral biofilm communities.

Conclusion: The structural, functional and molecular properties of streptococcal RPS support a recognition role of these cell surface molecules in oral biofilm formation.

No MeSH data available.


The six structural types of RPS identified from strains of S. sanguinis, S. gordonii, S. oralis and S. mitis that coaggregate with A. naeslundii. Partial O-acetylation of type 3G RPS is indicated. Lines indicate the location of GalNAcβ1-3Gal (Gn) or Galβ1-3GalNAc (G) recognition motifs within the hexa- or heptasaccharide repeating units of different RPS structural types.
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Figure 1: The six structural types of RPS identified from strains of S. sanguinis, S. gordonii, S. oralis and S. mitis that coaggregate with A. naeslundii. Partial O-acetylation of type 3G RPS is indicated. Lines indicate the location of GalNAcβ1-3Gal (Gn) or Galβ1-3GalNAc (G) recognition motifs within the hexa- or heptasaccharide repeating units of different RPS structural types.

Mentions: Structural studies of over 20 representative strains of S. sanguinis, S. gordonii, S. oralis and S. mitis that participate in type 2 fimbriae-mediated coaggregations with A. naeslundii have resulted in the identification of six different streptococcal receptor polysaccharides (RPS), each composed of a distinct hexa- or heptasaccharide repeating unit (Fig. 1) [12]. Remarkably, a host-like receptor motif for binding of A. naeslundii type 2 fimbriae occurs within each RPS repeating unit. Four structural types of RPS contain GalNAcβ1-3Gal (Gn) motifs (i.e., RPS types 1Gn, 2Gn, 4Gn and 5Gn) while the other two types contain Galβ1-3GalNAc (G) motifs (i.e., RPS types 2G and 3G). All streptococci that bear these polysaccharides are coaggregation partners of A. naeslundii. However, only streptococci that bear Gn-types of RPS are coaggregation partners of S. sanguinisSK1 and S. gordonii DL1. The GalNAc binding adhesins of these strains do not recognize G-types of RPS. Thus, the occurrence of Gn and G types of RPS on different streptococci may influence biofilm development.


Streptococcal receptor polysaccharides: recognition molecules for oral biofilm formation.

Yoshida Y, Palmer RJ, Yang J, Kolenbrander PE, Cisar JO - BMC Oral Health (2006)

The six structural types of RPS identified from strains of S. sanguinis, S. gordonii, S. oralis and S. mitis that coaggregate with A. naeslundii. Partial O-acetylation of type 3G RPS is indicated. Lines indicate the location of GalNAcβ1-3Gal (Gn) or Galβ1-3GalNAc (G) recognition motifs within the hexa- or heptasaccharide repeating units of different RPS structural types.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2147599&req=5

Figure 1: The six structural types of RPS identified from strains of S. sanguinis, S. gordonii, S. oralis and S. mitis that coaggregate with A. naeslundii. Partial O-acetylation of type 3G RPS is indicated. Lines indicate the location of GalNAcβ1-3Gal (Gn) or Galβ1-3GalNAc (G) recognition motifs within the hexa- or heptasaccharide repeating units of different RPS structural types.
Mentions: Structural studies of over 20 representative strains of S. sanguinis, S. gordonii, S. oralis and S. mitis that participate in type 2 fimbriae-mediated coaggregations with A. naeslundii have resulted in the identification of six different streptococcal receptor polysaccharides (RPS), each composed of a distinct hexa- or heptasaccharide repeating unit (Fig. 1) [12]. Remarkably, a host-like receptor motif for binding of A. naeslundii type 2 fimbriae occurs within each RPS repeating unit. Four structural types of RPS contain GalNAcβ1-3Gal (Gn) motifs (i.e., RPS types 1Gn, 2Gn, 4Gn and 5Gn) while the other two types contain Galβ1-3GalNAc (G) motifs (i.e., RPS types 2G and 3G). All streptococci that bear these polysaccharides are coaggregation partners of A. naeslundii. However, only streptococci that bear Gn-types of RPS are coaggregation partners of S. sanguinisSK1 and S. gordonii DL1. The GalNAc binding adhesins of these strains do not recognize G-types of RPS. Thus, the occurrence of Gn and G types of RPS on different streptococci may influence biofilm development.

Bottom Line: Streptococcal gene clusters for RPS biosynthesis were identified, sequenced, characterized and compared.These motifs account for RPS-mediated recognition, whereas other features of these polysaccharides are more closely associated with RPS antigenicity.The structural, functional and molecular properties of streptococcal RPS support a recognition role of these cell surface molecules in oral biofilm formation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-4352, USA. yasuoy@iwate-med.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: Strains of viridans group streptococci that initiate colonization of the human tooth surface typically coaggregate with each other and with Actinomyces naeslundii, another member of the developing biofilm community. These interactions generally involve adhesin-mediated recognition of streptococcal receptor polysaccharides (RPS). The objective of our studies is to understand the role of these polysaccharides in oral biofilm development.

Methods: Different structural types of RPS have been characterized by their reactions with specific antibodies and lectin-like adhesins. Streptococcal gene clusters for RPS biosynthesis were identified, sequenced, characterized and compared. RPS-producing bacteria were detected in biofilm samples using specific antibodies and gene probes.

Results: Six different types of RPS have been identified from representative viridans group streptococci that coaggregate with A. naeslundii. Each type is composed of a different hexa- or heptasaccharide repeating unit, the structures of which contain host-like motifs, either GalNAcbeta1-3Gal or Galbeta1-3GalNAc. These motifs account for RPS-mediated recognition, whereas other features of these polysaccharides are more closely associated with RPS antigenicity. The RPS-dependent interaction of S. oralis with A. naeslundii promotes growth of these bacteria and biofilm formation in flowing saliva. Type specific differences in RPS production have been noted among the resident streptococcal floras of different individuals, raising the possibility of RPS-based differences in the composition of oral biofilm communities.

Conclusion: The structural, functional and molecular properties of streptococcal RPS support a recognition role of these cell surface molecules in oral biofilm formation.

No MeSH data available.