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Oral antimicrobial peptides and biological control of caries.

Dale BA, Tao R, Kimball JR, Jurevic RJ - BMC Oral Health (2006)

Bottom Line: Alpha-defensins and LL37 are also released by neutrophils into the gingival crevicular fluid.The levels of these AMPs were highly variable in the population.We conclude that several types of AMPs that may have a role in oral health are present in unstimulated saliva.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dept. of Oral Biology, Box 357132, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195, USA. bdale@u.washington.edu

ABSTRACT
The presence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in saliva may be a biological factor that contributes to susceptibility or resistance to caries. This manuscript will review AMPs in saliva, consider their antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions, and evaluate their potential role in the oral cavity for protection of the tooth surface as well as the oral mucosa. These AMPs are made in salivary gland and duct cells and have broad antimicrobial activity. Alpha-defensins and LL37 are also released by neutrophils into the gingival crevicular fluid. Both sources may account for their presence in saliva. A recent study in middle school children aimed to determine a possible correlation between caries prevalence in children and salivary concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3), the cathelicidin, LL37, and the alpha-defensins. The levels of these AMPs were highly variable in the population. While levels of LL37 and hBD-3 did not correlate with caries experience, the mean alpha-defensin level was significantly higher in children with no caries than in children with caries (p < 0.005). We conclude that several types of AMPs that may have a role in oral health are present in unstimulated saliva. Low salivary levels of alpha-defensin may represent a biological factor that contributes to caries susceptibility. Our observation could lead to new ways to prevent caries and to a new tool for caries risk assessment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

HNP 1–3 concentration in saliva as a function of caries score. The HNP1–3 peptides are closely related and are all detected by the immunoassay used. Note statistically significant difference between the caries groups and the 0 Caries group; * p < 0.05; *** p < 0.005.
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Figure 2: HNP 1–3 concentration in saliva as a function of caries score. The HNP1–3 peptides are closely related and are all detected by the immunoassay used. Note statistically significant difference between the caries groups and the 0 Caries group; * p < 0.05; *** p < 0.005.

Mentions: When the relationship of AMP expression and caries experience was evaluated, we found a significant difference in the level of HNP1–3 among different caries groups (p < 0.005). Differences were observed for both the mean (or median) level of salivary HNP1–3 concentration (μg/ml) and salivary HNP1–3 relative to salivary protein (μg/mg). The HNP1–3 concentration was 1.30 ± 0.22 μg/ml (median ± std. error of the mean) for the caries free group (n = 51) and 0.73 ± 0.07 μg/ml for all subjects with evidence of caries (n = 92) (independent sample two tailed T test, p = 0.005). The HNP1–3 value relative to total salivary protein was 0.84 ± 0.14 μg/mg protein in the caries free group and 0.48 ± 0.05 μg/mg protein in the combined caries group (p = 0.005) (Figure 2). Similar analysis for LL37 showed the same trend with higher levels of LL37 in the no caries group than in those with caries, but results were not statistically significant. HBD3 concentration in saliva and the level of hBD3 relative to protein showed no significant difference in our population or between the different caries groups (not shown). Statistical analyses were also done using the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test based on rank and designed for non-normally distributed data. Using this test, significance differences were verified or even improved. We also evaluated whether association with caries could be due to either HNP1–3 or LL37, but over 90% of the effect was due to HNP1–3.


Oral antimicrobial peptides and biological control of caries.

Dale BA, Tao R, Kimball JR, Jurevic RJ - BMC Oral Health (2006)

HNP 1–3 concentration in saliva as a function of caries score. The HNP1–3 peptides are closely related and are all detected by the immunoassay used. Note statistically significant difference between the caries groups and the 0 Caries group; * p < 0.05; *** p < 0.005.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2147588&req=5

Figure 2: HNP 1–3 concentration in saliva as a function of caries score. The HNP1–3 peptides are closely related and are all detected by the immunoassay used. Note statistically significant difference between the caries groups and the 0 Caries group; * p < 0.05; *** p < 0.005.
Mentions: When the relationship of AMP expression and caries experience was evaluated, we found a significant difference in the level of HNP1–3 among different caries groups (p < 0.005). Differences were observed for both the mean (or median) level of salivary HNP1–3 concentration (μg/ml) and salivary HNP1–3 relative to salivary protein (μg/mg). The HNP1–3 concentration was 1.30 ± 0.22 μg/ml (median ± std. error of the mean) for the caries free group (n = 51) and 0.73 ± 0.07 μg/ml for all subjects with evidence of caries (n = 92) (independent sample two tailed T test, p = 0.005). The HNP1–3 value relative to total salivary protein was 0.84 ± 0.14 μg/mg protein in the caries free group and 0.48 ± 0.05 μg/mg protein in the combined caries group (p = 0.005) (Figure 2). Similar analysis for LL37 showed the same trend with higher levels of LL37 in the no caries group than in those with caries, but results were not statistically significant. HBD3 concentration in saliva and the level of hBD3 relative to protein showed no significant difference in our population or between the different caries groups (not shown). Statistical analyses were also done using the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test based on rank and designed for non-normally distributed data. Using this test, significance differences were verified or even improved. We also evaluated whether association with caries could be due to either HNP1–3 or LL37, but over 90% of the effect was due to HNP1–3.

Bottom Line: Alpha-defensins and LL37 are also released by neutrophils into the gingival crevicular fluid.The levels of these AMPs were highly variable in the population.We conclude that several types of AMPs that may have a role in oral health are present in unstimulated saliva.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dept. of Oral Biology, Box 357132, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195, USA. bdale@u.washington.edu

ABSTRACT
The presence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in saliva may be a biological factor that contributes to susceptibility or resistance to caries. This manuscript will review AMPs in saliva, consider their antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions, and evaluate their potential role in the oral cavity for protection of the tooth surface as well as the oral mucosa. These AMPs are made in salivary gland and duct cells and have broad antimicrobial activity. Alpha-defensins and LL37 are also released by neutrophils into the gingival crevicular fluid. Both sources may account for their presence in saliva. A recent study in middle school children aimed to determine a possible correlation between caries prevalence in children and salivary concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3), the cathelicidin, LL37, and the alpha-defensins. The levels of these AMPs were highly variable in the population. While levels of LL37 and hBD-3 did not correlate with caries experience, the mean alpha-defensin level was significantly higher in children with no caries than in children with caries (p < 0.005). We conclude that several types of AMPs that may have a role in oral health are present in unstimulated saliva. Low salivary levels of alpha-defensin may represent a biological factor that contributes to caries susceptibility. Our observation could lead to new ways to prevent caries and to a new tool for caries risk assessment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus