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Oral antimicrobial peptides and biological control of caries.

Dale BA, Tao R, Kimball JR, Jurevic RJ - BMC Oral Health (2006)

Bottom Line: Alpha-defensins and LL37 are also released by neutrophils into the gingival crevicular fluid.The levels of these AMPs were highly variable in the population.We conclude that several types of AMPs that may have a role in oral health are present in unstimulated saliva.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dept. of Oral Biology, Box 357132, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195, USA. bdale@u.washington.edu

ABSTRACT
The presence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in saliva may be a biological factor that contributes to susceptibility or resistance to caries. This manuscript will review AMPs in saliva, consider their antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions, and evaluate their potential role in the oral cavity for protection of the tooth surface as well as the oral mucosa. These AMPs are made in salivary gland and duct cells and have broad antimicrobial activity. Alpha-defensins and LL37 are also released by neutrophils into the gingival crevicular fluid. Both sources may account for their presence in saliva. A recent study in middle school children aimed to determine a possible correlation between caries prevalence in children and salivary concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3), the cathelicidin, LL37, and the alpha-defensins. The levels of these AMPs were highly variable in the population. While levels of LL37 and hBD-3 did not correlate with caries experience, the mean alpha-defensin level was significantly higher in children with no caries than in children with caries (p < 0.005). We conclude that several types of AMPs that may have a role in oral health are present in unstimulated saliva. Low salivary levels of alpha-defensin may represent a biological factor that contributes to caries susceptibility. Our observation could lead to new ways to prevent caries and to a new tool for caries risk assessment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Diagram indicating the presence of antimicrobial peptides in saliva (blue), in gingival epithelium (pink), and in neutrophils (PMNs) migrating into the oral cavity via the gingival crevicular fluid. All of these sources of antimicrobial peptides may aid protection of the mucosa from bacterial infection and the tooth surface from caries.
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Figure 1: Diagram indicating the presence of antimicrobial peptides in saliva (blue), in gingival epithelium (pink), and in neutrophils (PMNs) migrating into the oral cavity via the gingival crevicular fluid. All of these sources of antimicrobial peptides may aid protection of the mucosa from bacterial infection and the tooth surface from caries.

Mentions: The oral cavity is a unique environment. Oral mucosae are a critical protective interface between external and internal environments and must serve as a barrier to the myriad microbial species present in the mouth. Saliva, the epithelial surface layers, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) all contribute to maintaining the health of the oral cavity and periodontium in overlapping but independent ways (Figure 1). Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural antibiotics that are found in each of these compartments: in the saliva, in the epithelium, and in neutrophils. Evidence is accumulating that AMPs are important contributors to maintaining the balance between health and disease as part of the host innate immune response. They have generally been considered to contribute to mucosal health; however, it is logical that these AMPs are biological factors that influence caries susceptibility and development as well.


Oral antimicrobial peptides and biological control of caries.

Dale BA, Tao R, Kimball JR, Jurevic RJ - BMC Oral Health (2006)

Diagram indicating the presence of antimicrobial peptides in saliva (blue), in gingival epithelium (pink), and in neutrophils (PMNs) migrating into the oral cavity via the gingival crevicular fluid. All of these sources of antimicrobial peptides may aid protection of the mucosa from bacterial infection and the tooth surface from caries.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2147588&req=5

Figure 1: Diagram indicating the presence of antimicrobial peptides in saliva (blue), in gingival epithelium (pink), and in neutrophils (PMNs) migrating into the oral cavity via the gingival crevicular fluid. All of these sources of antimicrobial peptides may aid protection of the mucosa from bacterial infection and the tooth surface from caries.
Mentions: The oral cavity is a unique environment. Oral mucosae are a critical protective interface between external and internal environments and must serve as a barrier to the myriad microbial species present in the mouth. Saliva, the epithelial surface layers, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) all contribute to maintaining the health of the oral cavity and periodontium in overlapping but independent ways (Figure 1). Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural antibiotics that are found in each of these compartments: in the saliva, in the epithelium, and in neutrophils. Evidence is accumulating that AMPs are important contributors to maintaining the balance between health and disease as part of the host innate immune response. They have generally been considered to contribute to mucosal health; however, it is logical that these AMPs are biological factors that influence caries susceptibility and development as well.

Bottom Line: Alpha-defensins and LL37 are also released by neutrophils into the gingival crevicular fluid.The levels of these AMPs were highly variable in the population.We conclude that several types of AMPs that may have a role in oral health are present in unstimulated saliva.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dept. of Oral Biology, Box 357132, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195, USA. bdale@u.washington.edu

ABSTRACT
The presence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in saliva may be a biological factor that contributes to susceptibility or resistance to caries. This manuscript will review AMPs in saliva, consider their antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions, and evaluate their potential role in the oral cavity for protection of the tooth surface as well as the oral mucosa. These AMPs are made in salivary gland and duct cells and have broad antimicrobial activity. Alpha-defensins and LL37 are also released by neutrophils into the gingival crevicular fluid. Both sources may account for their presence in saliva. A recent study in middle school children aimed to determine a possible correlation between caries prevalence in children and salivary concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3), the cathelicidin, LL37, and the alpha-defensins. The levels of these AMPs were highly variable in the population. While levels of LL37 and hBD-3 did not correlate with caries experience, the mean alpha-defensin level was significantly higher in children with no caries than in children with caries (p < 0.005). We conclude that several types of AMPs that may have a role in oral health are present in unstimulated saliva. Low salivary levels of alpha-defensin may represent a biological factor that contributes to caries susceptibility. Our observation could lead to new ways to prevent caries and to a new tool for caries risk assessment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus