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Depression and anxiety in epilepsy: the association with demographic and seizure-related variables.

Kimiskidis VK, Triantafyllou NI, Kararizou E, Gatzonis SS, Fountoulakis KN, Siatouni A, Loucaidis P, Pseftogianni D, Vlaikidis N, Kaprinis GS - Ann Gen Psychiatry (2007)

Bottom Line: Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with epilepsy, exerting a profound negative effect on health-related quality of life.Our results confirm the prevailing view that depression and anxiety are common psychological disorders in epileptics.It is additionally concluded that female gender, high seizure frequency and a symptomatic epilepsy syndrome are independent risk factors for the development of anxiety and/or depression.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Psychiatry III, Thessaloniki, Greece. kimiskid@med.auth.gr

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with epilepsy, exerting a profound negative effect on health-related quality of life. Several issues, however, pertaining to their association with psychosocial, seizure-related and medication factors, remain controversial. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the association of interictal mood disorders with various demographic and seizure-related variables in patients with newly-diagnosed and chronic epilepsy.

Methods: We investigated 201 patients with epilepsy (51.2% males, mean age 33.2 +/- 10.0 years, range 16-60) with a mean disease duration of 13.9 +/- 9.5 years. Depression and anxiety were assessed in the interictal state with the Beck Depression Inventory, 21-item version (BDI-21) and the state and trait subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S and STAI-T), respectively. The association of mood disorders with various variables was investigated with simple and multiple linear regression analyses.

Results: High seizure frequency and symptomatic focal epilepsy (SFE) were independent determinants of depression, together accounting for 12.4% of the variation of the BDI-21. The STAI-S index was significantly associated with the type of epilepsy syndrome (SFE). Finally, high seizure frequency, SFE and female gender were independent determinants of trait anxiety accounting for 14.7% of the variation of the STAI-T.

Conclusion: Our results confirm the prevailing view that depression and anxiety are common psychological disorders in epileptics. It is additionally concluded that female gender, high seizure frequency and a symptomatic epilepsy syndrome are independent risk factors for the development of anxiety and/or depression.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scattergram demonstrating the relationship between STAI-2 score and the type of epilepsy syndrome. SFE: symptomatic focal epilepsy, CFE: cryptogenic focal epilepsy, IGE: idiopathic generalized epilepsy. A linear regression line and the 95% confidence band are shown. Slope: -1.932 ± 0.5797 (95% confidence interval: -3.068 to -0.7957); y-intercept: 46.16 ± 1.090 (95% CI: 44.03 to 48.30); p < 0.001.
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Figure 2: Scattergram demonstrating the relationship between STAI-2 score and the type of epilepsy syndrome. SFE: symptomatic focal epilepsy, CFE: cryptogenic focal epilepsy, IGE: idiopathic generalized epilepsy. A linear regression line and the 95% confidence band are shown. Slope: -1.932 ± 0.5797 (95% confidence interval: -3.068 to -0.7957); y-intercept: 46.16 ± 1.090 (95% CI: 44.03 to 48.30); p < 0.001.

Mentions: The associations of levels of anxiety quantified using STAI-T index with demographic and clinical characteristics are presented in Table 5. Variables such as seizure frequency > 1/month and > 1/year, as well as SFE, CFE and the patient's gender were significantly associated with STAI-T index (p < 0.001). In particular, high seizure frequency (SF > 1/month (β = 3.85, p < 0.001)), polypharmacy (AED3 (β = 3.242, p = 0.015), SFE (β = 3.52, p < 0.001) (Figure 2) and female gender (β = 2.85, p = 0.002) were positively correlated to the STAI-T. In contrast, low seizure frequency (SF > 1/year, β = -2.761, p = 0.004), use of monotherapy (AED1, β = -2.277, p = 0.016) and cryptogenic focal epilepsy (CFE, β = -2.657, p = 0.012) were found to be negatively correlated with the STAI-T index.


Depression and anxiety in epilepsy: the association with demographic and seizure-related variables.

Kimiskidis VK, Triantafyllou NI, Kararizou E, Gatzonis SS, Fountoulakis KN, Siatouni A, Loucaidis P, Pseftogianni D, Vlaikidis N, Kaprinis GS - Ann Gen Psychiatry (2007)

Scattergram demonstrating the relationship between STAI-2 score and the type of epilepsy syndrome. SFE: symptomatic focal epilepsy, CFE: cryptogenic focal epilepsy, IGE: idiopathic generalized epilepsy. A linear regression line and the 95% confidence band are shown. Slope: -1.932 ± 0.5797 (95% confidence interval: -3.068 to -0.7957); y-intercept: 46.16 ± 1.090 (95% CI: 44.03 to 48.30); p < 0.001.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2147007&req=5

Figure 2: Scattergram demonstrating the relationship between STAI-2 score and the type of epilepsy syndrome. SFE: symptomatic focal epilepsy, CFE: cryptogenic focal epilepsy, IGE: idiopathic generalized epilepsy. A linear regression line and the 95% confidence band are shown. Slope: -1.932 ± 0.5797 (95% confidence interval: -3.068 to -0.7957); y-intercept: 46.16 ± 1.090 (95% CI: 44.03 to 48.30); p < 0.001.
Mentions: The associations of levels of anxiety quantified using STAI-T index with demographic and clinical characteristics are presented in Table 5. Variables such as seizure frequency > 1/month and > 1/year, as well as SFE, CFE and the patient's gender were significantly associated with STAI-T index (p < 0.001). In particular, high seizure frequency (SF > 1/month (β = 3.85, p < 0.001)), polypharmacy (AED3 (β = 3.242, p = 0.015), SFE (β = 3.52, p < 0.001) (Figure 2) and female gender (β = 2.85, p = 0.002) were positively correlated to the STAI-T. In contrast, low seizure frequency (SF > 1/year, β = -2.761, p = 0.004), use of monotherapy (AED1, β = -2.277, p = 0.016) and cryptogenic focal epilepsy (CFE, β = -2.657, p = 0.012) were found to be negatively correlated with the STAI-T index.

Bottom Line: Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with epilepsy, exerting a profound negative effect on health-related quality of life.Our results confirm the prevailing view that depression and anxiety are common psychological disorders in epileptics.It is additionally concluded that female gender, high seizure frequency and a symptomatic epilepsy syndrome are independent risk factors for the development of anxiety and/or depression.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Psychiatry III, Thessaloniki, Greece. kimiskid@med.auth.gr

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with epilepsy, exerting a profound negative effect on health-related quality of life. Several issues, however, pertaining to their association with psychosocial, seizure-related and medication factors, remain controversial. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the association of interictal mood disorders with various demographic and seizure-related variables in patients with newly-diagnosed and chronic epilepsy.

Methods: We investigated 201 patients with epilepsy (51.2% males, mean age 33.2 +/- 10.0 years, range 16-60) with a mean disease duration of 13.9 +/- 9.5 years. Depression and anxiety were assessed in the interictal state with the Beck Depression Inventory, 21-item version (BDI-21) and the state and trait subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S and STAI-T), respectively. The association of mood disorders with various variables was investigated with simple and multiple linear regression analyses.

Results: High seizure frequency and symptomatic focal epilepsy (SFE) were independent determinants of depression, together accounting for 12.4% of the variation of the BDI-21. The STAI-S index was significantly associated with the type of epilepsy syndrome (SFE). Finally, high seizure frequency, SFE and female gender were independent determinants of trait anxiety accounting for 14.7% of the variation of the STAI-T.

Conclusion: Our results confirm the prevailing view that depression and anxiety are common psychological disorders in epileptics. It is additionally concluded that female gender, high seizure frequency and a symptomatic epilepsy syndrome are independent risk factors for the development of anxiety and/or depression.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus