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Depression and anxiety in epilepsy: the association with demographic and seizure-related variables.

Kimiskidis VK, Triantafyllou NI, Kararizou E, Gatzonis SS, Fountoulakis KN, Siatouni A, Loucaidis P, Pseftogianni D, Vlaikidis N, Kaprinis GS - Ann Gen Psychiatry (2007)

Bottom Line: Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with epilepsy, exerting a profound negative effect on health-related quality of life.The STAI-S index was significantly associated with the type of epilepsy syndrome (SFE).It is additionally concluded that female gender, high seizure frequency and a symptomatic epilepsy syndrome are independent risk factors for the development of anxiety and/or depression.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Psychiatry III, Thessaloniki, Greece. kimiskid@med.auth.gr

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with epilepsy, exerting a profound negative effect on health-related quality of life. Several issues, however, pertaining to their association with psychosocial, seizure-related and medication factors, remain controversial. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the association of interictal mood disorders with various demographic and seizure-related variables in patients with newly-diagnosed and chronic epilepsy.

Methods: We investigated 201 patients with epilepsy (51.2% males, mean age 33.2 +/- 10.0 years, range 16-60) with a mean disease duration of 13.9 +/- 9.5 years. Depression and anxiety were assessed in the interictal state with the Beck Depression Inventory, 21-item version (BDI-21) and the state and trait subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S and STAI-T), respectively. The association of mood disorders with various variables was investigated with simple and multiple linear regression analyses.

Results: High seizure frequency and symptomatic focal epilepsy (SFE) were independent determinants of depression, together accounting for 12.4% of the variation of the BDI-21. The STAI-S index was significantly associated with the type of epilepsy syndrome (SFE). Finally, high seizure frequency, SFE and female gender were independent determinants of trait anxiety accounting for 14.7% of the variation of the STAI-T.

Conclusion: Our results confirm the prevailing view that depression and anxiety are common psychological disorders in epileptics. It is additionally concluded that female gender, high seizure frequency and a symptomatic epilepsy syndrome are independent risk factors for the development of anxiety and/or depression.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scattergram demonstrating the relationship between BDI score and the type of epilepsy syndrome. SFE: symptomatic focal epilepsy, CFE: cryptogenic focal epilepsy, IGE: idiopathic generalized epilepsy. A linear regression line and the 95% confidence band are shown. Slope: -2.299 ± 0.6290 (95% confidence interval: -3.532 to -1.066); y-intercept: 11.50 ± 1.182 (95% CI: 9.187 to 13.82); p < 0.001.
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Figure 1: Scattergram demonstrating the relationship between BDI score and the type of epilepsy syndrome. SFE: symptomatic focal epilepsy, CFE: cryptogenic focal epilepsy, IGE: idiopathic generalized epilepsy. A linear regression line and the 95% confidence band are shown. Slope: -2.299 ± 0.6290 (95% confidence interval: -3.532 to -1.066); y-intercept: 11.50 ± 1.182 (95% CI: 9.187 to 13.82); p < 0.001.

Mentions: Table 2 presents the estimated association levels of depression quantified using the BDI-21 index, with demographic and clinical characteristics that were evaluated using simple linear regression analyses. Variables such as seizure frequency, type of epilepsy syndrome and number of antiepileptic drugs were significantly (p < 0.01) associated with BDI-21. More specifically, BDI-21 was positively associated with symptomatic focal epilepsy (β = 3.60, p < 0.001) and negatively with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (β = -3.35, p = 0.007) (Figure 1). High seizure frequency (SF > 1/month) and a high number of antiepileptic drugs (AED3) were positively associated with depression (β = 4.88, p < 0.001 and β = 3.065, p = 0.034, respectively) whereas a low number of antiepileptic drugs (AED1) showed a negative association with the depression index (β = -2.52, p = 0.014). Finally, female gender showed a trend towards being significantly associated with the BDI-21 index (β = 1.99, p = 0.054).


Depression and anxiety in epilepsy: the association with demographic and seizure-related variables.

Kimiskidis VK, Triantafyllou NI, Kararizou E, Gatzonis SS, Fountoulakis KN, Siatouni A, Loucaidis P, Pseftogianni D, Vlaikidis N, Kaprinis GS - Ann Gen Psychiatry (2007)

Scattergram demonstrating the relationship between BDI score and the type of epilepsy syndrome. SFE: symptomatic focal epilepsy, CFE: cryptogenic focal epilepsy, IGE: idiopathic generalized epilepsy. A linear regression line and the 95% confidence band are shown. Slope: -2.299 ± 0.6290 (95% confidence interval: -3.532 to -1.066); y-intercept: 11.50 ± 1.182 (95% CI: 9.187 to 13.82); p < 0.001.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2147007&req=5

Figure 1: Scattergram demonstrating the relationship between BDI score and the type of epilepsy syndrome. SFE: symptomatic focal epilepsy, CFE: cryptogenic focal epilepsy, IGE: idiopathic generalized epilepsy. A linear regression line and the 95% confidence band are shown. Slope: -2.299 ± 0.6290 (95% confidence interval: -3.532 to -1.066); y-intercept: 11.50 ± 1.182 (95% CI: 9.187 to 13.82); p < 0.001.
Mentions: Table 2 presents the estimated association levels of depression quantified using the BDI-21 index, with demographic and clinical characteristics that were evaluated using simple linear regression analyses. Variables such as seizure frequency, type of epilepsy syndrome and number of antiepileptic drugs were significantly (p < 0.01) associated with BDI-21. More specifically, BDI-21 was positively associated with symptomatic focal epilepsy (β = 3.60, p < 0.001) and negatively with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (β = -3.35, p = 0.007) (Figure 1). High seizure frequency (SF > 1/month) and a high number of antiepileptic drugs (AED3) were positively associated with depression (β = 4.88, p < 0.001 and β = 3.065, p = 0.034, respectively) whereas a low number of antiepileptic drugs (AED1) showed a negative association with the depression index (β = -2.52, p = 0.014). Finally, female gender showed a trend towards being significantly associated with the BDI-21 index (β = 1.99, p = 0.054).

Bottom Line: Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with epilepsy, exerting a profound negative effect on health-related quality of life.The STAI-S index was significantly associated with the type of epilepsy syndrome (SFE).It is additionally concluded that female gender, high seizure frequency and a symptomatic epilepsy syndrome are independent risk factors for the development of anxiety and/or depression.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Psychiatry III, Thessaloniki, Greece. kimiskid@med.auth.gr

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with epilepsy, exerting a profound negative effect on health-related quality of life. Several issues, however, pertaining to their association with psychosocial, seizure-related and medication factors, remain controversial. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the association of interictal mood disorders with various demographic and seizure-related variables in patients with newly-diagnosed and chronic epilepsy.

Methods: We investigated 201 patients with epilepsy (51.2% males, mean age 33.2 +/- 10.0 years, range 16-60) with a mean disease duration of 13.9 +/- 9.5 years. Depression and anxiety were assessed in the interictal state with the Beck Depression Inventory, 21-item version (BDI-21) and the state and trait subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S and STAI-T), respectively. The association of mood disorders with various variables was investigated with simple and multiple linear regression analyses.

Results: High seizure frequency and symptomatic focal epilepsy (SFE) were independent determinants of depression, together accounting for 12.4% of the variation of the BDI-21. The STAI-S index was significantly associated with the type of epilepsy syndrome (SFE). Finally, high seizure frequency, SFE and female gender were independent determinants of trait anxiety accounting for 14.7% of the variation of the STAI-T.

Conclusion: Our results confirm the prevailing view that depression and anxiety are common psychological disorders in epileptics. It is additionally concluded that female gender, high seizure frequency and a symptomatic epilepsy syndrome are independent risk factors for the development of anxiety and/or depression.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus