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A league of their own: demographics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male adult non-medical anabolic steroid users in the United States.

Cohen J, Collins R, Darkes J, Gwartney D - J Int Soc Sports Nutr (2007)

Bottom Line: The majority of respondents did not initiate AAS use during adolescence and their NMAAS use was not motivated by athletics.These findings question commonly held views of the typical NMAAS user and the associated underlying motivations.The focus on "cheating" athletes and at risk youth has led to ineffective policy as it relates to the predominant group of NMAAS users.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Collins, McDonald & Gann, P,C,, Carle Place, NY, USA. rcollins@cmgesq.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rule violations among elite-level sports competitors and tragedies among adolescents have largely defined the issue of non-medical anabolic-androgenic steroid (NMAAS) use for the public and policy makers. However, the predominant and oft-ignored segment of the NMAAS community exists in the general population that is neither participating in competitive sports nor adolescent. A clearer profile of NMAAS users within the general population is an initial step in developing a full understanding of NMAAS use and devising appropriate policy and interventions. This survey sought to provide a more comprehensive profile of NMAAS users by accessing a large sample of user respondents from around the United States.

Methods: U.S.-based male NMAAS users (n = 1955) were recruited from various Internet websites dedicated to resistance training activities and use of ergogenic substances, mass emails, and print media to participate in a 291-item web-based survey. The Internet was utilized to provide a large and geographically diverse sample with the greatest degree of anonymity to facilitate participation.

Results: The majority of respondents did not initiate AAS use during adolescence and their NMAAS use was not motivated by athletics. The typical user was a Caucasian, highly-educated, gainfully employed professional approximately 30 years of age, who was earning an above-average income, was not active in organized sports, and whose use was motivated by increases in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and physical attractiveness. These findings question commonly held views of the typical NMAAS user and the associated underlying motivations.

Conclusion: The focus on "cheating" athletes and at risk youth has led to ineffective policy as it relates to the predominant group of NMAAS users. Effective policy, prevention or intervention should address the target population(s) and their reasons for use while utilizing their desire for responsible use and education.

No MeSH data available.


Annual Household Income.
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Figure 5: Annual Household Income.

Mentions: The group was well-educated; most held post-secondary degrees (74.1%) and, compared to recent U.S. Census statistics, more had completed college and advanced degrees and fewer had failed to graduate high school than expected based on the general populace (see Figure 2). Most were employed full-time (77.7%; see Figure 3) and the overall employment rate of 98.5% was higher than for males aged 20 years or more in the U.S. population (72.4% as of November, 2005; [44]). The unemployment rate for males aged 20 years and older in the U.S. in November, 2005 was 4.3% [44], nearly three times the 1.5% unemployment rate observed among this NMAAS-using sample. Most were employed as professionals (i.e., "white collar" employees; see Figure 4) with median household income between $60,000 and $79,999 per year, much higher than the general population ($44,684[45]; see Figure 5). Such above-average educational and occupational functioning appear consistently among AAS users (see also [25]).


A league of their own: demographics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male adult non-medical anabolic steroid users in the United States.

Cohen J, Collins R, Darkes J, Gwartney D - J Int Soc Sports Nutr (2007)

Annual Household Income.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2131752&req=5

Figure 5: Annual Household Income.
Mentions: The group was well-educated; most held post-secondary degrees (74.1%) and, compared to recent U.S. Census statistics, more had completed college and advanced degrees and fewer had failed to graduate high school than expected based on the general populace (see Figure 2). Most were employed full-time (77.7%; see Figure 3) and the overall employment rate of 98.5% was higher than for males aged 20 years or more in the U.S. population (72.4% as of November, 2005; [44]). The unemployment rate for males aged 20 years and older in the U.S. in November, 2005 was 4.3% [44], nearly three times the 1.5% unemployment rate observed among this NMAAS-using sample. Most were employed as professionals (i.e., "white collar" employees; see Figure 4) with median household income between $60,000 and $79,999 per year, much higher than the general population ($44,684[45]; see Figure 5). Such above-average educational and occupational functioning appear consistently among AAS users (see also [25]).

Bottom Line: The majority of respondents did not initiate AAS use during adolescence and their NMAAS use was not motivated by athletics.These findings question commonly held views of the typical NMAAS user and the associated underlying motivations.The focus on "cheating" athletes and at risk youth has led to ineffective policy as it relates to the predominant group of NMAAS users.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Collins, McDonald & Gann, P,C,, Carle Place, NY, USA. rcollins@cmgesq.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rule violations among elite-level sports competitors and tragedies among adolescents have largely defined the issue of non-medical anabolic-androgenic steroid (NMAAS) use for the public and policy makers. However, the predominant and oft-ignored segment of the NMAAS community exists in the general population that is neither participating in competitive sports nor adolescent. A clearer profile of NMAAS users within the general population is an initial step in developing a full understanding of NMAAS use and devising appropriate policy and interventions. This survey sought to provide a more comprehensive profile of NMAAS users by accessing a large sample of user respondents from around the United States.

Methods: U.S.-based male NMAAS users (n = 1955) were recruited from various Internet websites dedicated to resistance training activities and use of ergogenic substances, mass emails, and print media to participate in a 291-item web-based survey. The Internet was utilized to provide a large and geographically diverse sample with the greatest degree of anonymity to facilitate participation.

Results: The majority of respondents did not initiate AAS use during adolescence and their NMAAS use was not motivated by athletics. The typical user was a Caucasian, highly-educated, gainfully employed professional approximately 30 years of age, who was earning an above-average income, was not active in organized sports, and whose use was motivated by increases in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and physical attractiveness. These findings question commonly held views of the typical NMAAS user and the associated underlying motivations.

Conclusion: The focus on "cheating" athletes and at risk youth has led to ineffective policy as it relates to the predominant group of NMAAS users. Effective policy, prevention or intervention should address the target population(s) and their reasons for use while utilizing their desire for responsible use and education.

No MeSH data available.