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The influence of gender on the effects of aspirin in preventing myocardial infarction.

Yerman T, Gan WQ, Sin DD - BMC Med (2007)

Bottom Line: There is considerable variation in the effect of aspirin therapy reducing the risk of myocardial infarction (MI).Gender could be a potential explanatory factor for the variability.Overall, compared with placebo, aspirin reduced the risk of non-fatal MI (RR = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.81, p < 0.001) but not of fatal MI (RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.75-1.03, p = 0.120).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine (Respiratory Division), University of British Columbia, and The James Hogg iCAPTURE Center for Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Research, St, Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. todd.yerman@utoronto.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: There is considerable variation in the effect of aspirin therapy reducing the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Gender could be a potential explanatory factor for the variability. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether gender mix might play a role in explaining the large variation of aspirin efficacy across primary and secondary MI prevention trials.

Methods: Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that examined the efficacy of aspirin therapy on MI were identified by using the PUBMED database (1966 to October 2006). Weighted linear regression technique was used to determine the relationship between log-transformed relative risk (RR) of MI and the percentage of male participants in each trial. The reciprocal of the standard error of the RR in each trial (1/SE) was used as the weight.

Results: A total of 23 trials (n = 113 494 participants) were identified. Overall, compared with placebo, aspirin reduced the risk of non-fatal MI (RR = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.81, p < 0.001) but not of fatal MI (RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.75-1.03, p = 0.120). A total of 27% of the variation in the non-fatal MI results could be accounted for by considering the gender mix of the trials (p = 0.017). Trials that recruited predominantly men demonstrated the largest risk reduction in non-fatal MI (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.54-0.71), while trials that contained predominately women failed to demonstrate a significant risk reduction in non-fatal MI (RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.71-1.06).

Conclusion: Gender accounts for a substantial proportion of the variability in the efficacy of aspirin in reducing MI rates across these trials, and supports the notion that women might be less responsive to aspirin than men.

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The impact of gender mix on the reported efficacy of aspirin in reducing non-fatal myocardial infarction risk. The regression line is weighted by the reciprocal of the standard error (1/SE) of the relative risk of each trial. The diameter of each circle is proportional to 1/SE of each trial.
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Figure 3: The impact of gender mix on the reported efficacy of aspirin in reducing non-fatal myocardial infarction risk. The regression line is weighted by the reciprocal of the standard error (1/SE) of the relative risk of each trial. The diameter of each circle is proportional to 1/SE of each trial.

Mentions: In a meta-regression analysis, we observed a significant relationship between gender mix (i.e. proportionality of male or female participants in each trial) and the effectiveness of aspirin in reducing non-fatal MI rates in these trials (R2 = 0.27, p = 0.017) (Figure 3). However, we failed to observe a significant impact of gender mix on the effect sizes for fatal MI (R2 = 0.03, p = 0.514). The relationship between gender mix and the effectiveness of aspirin in reducing the combined end point of fatal and non-fatal MI was only marginally significant (R2 = 0.21, p = 0.065). The inclusion of average age and smoking status of the trial participants made very little impact to the overall findings. For the end point of non-fatal MI, the R2 value was 0.32 (p = 0.038). For fatal MI, it was 0.09 (p = 0.465) and for the combined end point of fatal and non-fatal MI, it was 0.28 (p = 0.072).


The influence of gender on the effects of aspirin in preventing myocardial infarction.

Yerman T, Gan WQ, Sin DD - BMC Med (2007)

The impact of gender mix on the reported efficacy of aspirin in reducing non-fatal myocardial infarction risk. The regression line is weighted by the reciprocal of the standard error (1/SE) of the relative risk of each trial. The diameter of each circle is proportional to 1/SE of each trial.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2131749&req=5

Figure 3: The impact of gender mix on the reported efficacy of aspirin in reducing non-fatal myocardial infarction risk. The regression line is weighted by the reciprocal of the standard error (1/SE) of the relative risk of each trial. The diameter of each circle is proportional to 1/SE of each trial.
Mentions: In a meta-regression analysis, we observed a significant relationship between gender mix (i.e. proportionality of male or female participants in each trial) and the effectiveness of aspirin in reducing non-fatal MI rates in these trials (R2 = 0.27, p = 0.017) (Figure 3). However, we failed to observe a significant impact of gender mix on the effect sizes for fatal MI (R2 = 0.03, p = 0.514). The relationship between gender mix and the effectiveness of aspirin in reducing the combined end point of fatal and non-fatal MI was only marginally significant (R2 = 0.21, p = 0.065). The inclusion of average age and smoking status of the trial participants made very little impact to the overall findings. For the end point of non-fatal MI, the R2 value was 0.32 (p = 0.038). For fatal MI, it was 0.09 (p = 0.465) and for the combined end point of fatal and non-fatal MI, it was 0.28 (p = 0.072).

Bottom Line: There is considerable variation in the effect of aspirin therapy reducing the risk of myocardial infarction (MI).Gender could be a potential explanatory factor for the variability.Overall, compared with placebo, aspirin reduced the risk of non-fatal MI (RR = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.81, p < 0.001) but not of fatal MI (RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.75-1.03, p = 0.120).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine (Respiratory Division), University of British Columbia, and The James Hogg iCAPTURE Center for Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Research, St, Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. todd.yerman@utoronto.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: There is considerable variation in the effect of aspirin therapy reducing the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Gender could be a potential explanatory factor for the variability. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether gender mix might play a role in explaining the large variation of aspirin efficacy across primary and secondary MI prevention trials.

Methods: Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that examined the efficacy of aspirin therapy on MI were identified by using the PUBMED database (1966 to October 2006). Weighted linear regression technique was used to determine the relationship between log-transformed relative risk (RR) of MI and the percentage of male participants in each trial. The reciprocal of the standard error of the RR in each trial (1/SE) was used as the weight.

Results: A total of 23 trials (n = 113 494 participants) were identified. Overall, compared with placebo, aspirin reduced the risk of non-fatal MI (RR = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.81, p < 0.001) but not of fatal MI (RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.75-1.03, p = 0.120). A total of 27% of the variation in the non-fatal MI results could be accounted for by considering the gender mix of the trials (p = 0.017). Trials that recruited predominantly men demonstrated the largest risk reduction in non-fatal MI (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.54-0.71), while trials that contained predominately women failed to demonstrate a significant risk reduction in non-fatal MI (RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.71-1.06).

Conclusion: Gender accounts for a substantial proportion of the variability in the efficacy of aspirin in reducing MI rates across these trials, and supports the notion that women might be less responsive to aspirin than men.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus