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P2X(5) and P2X(7) receptors in human warts and CIN-612 organotypic raft cultures of human papillomavirus infected keratinocytes.

Greig AV, Cuthill S, Linge C, Clayton E, Burnstock G - Purinergic Signal. (2006)

Bottom Line: A similar pattern was seen in the CIN 612 raft cultures.Both P2X(5) and P2X(7) receptors were found in the nuclei of koilocytes, abnormal keratinocytes characteristic of human papillomavirus infection.P2X(5) and P2X(7) receptors may provide a new focus for therapeutic research into treatments for warts because these receptors can induce cell differentiation and cell death.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Autonomic Neuroscience Centre, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Rowland Hill Street, London, NW3 2PF, UK.

ABSTRACT
Purinergic receptors, which bind adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), are expressed on human cutaneous keratinocytes and in squamous cell carcinomas. Studies on normal human epidermis and primary keratinocyte cultures have suggested that P2X(5) receptors are likely to be involved in keratinocyte differentiation and P2X(7) receptors are likely to be part of the machinery of end stage terminal differentiation/apoptosis of keratinocytes. P2X(7) receptor agonists can significantly reduce primary keratinocyte cell numbers in culture. Human papillomaviruses are increasingly recognised as important human carcinogens in the development of non-melanoma skin cancers. In our study, immunohistochemical analysis for P2X(5) and P2X(7) receptors was performed on paraffin sections of normal human skin, warts, raft cultures of normal human keratinocytes and raft cultures of CIN 612 cells, a model of keratinocytes infected with human papillomavirus type 31. In warts there was up-regulation of the expression of P2X(5) receptors. A similar pattern was seen in the CIN 612 raft cultures. Both P2X(5) and P2X(7) receptors were found in the nuclei of koilocytes, abnormal keratinocytes characteristic of human papillomavirus infection. P2X(5) and P2X(7) receptors may provide a new focus for therapeutic research into treatments for warts because these receptors can induce cell differentiation and cell death.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Expression of P2X5 and P2X7 receptors in paraffin sections of raft cultures of normal human keratinocytes and of CIN 612 (HPV 31) cells. Nuclei were counterstained blue with haematoxylin. a P2X5 immunoreactivity (brown) was present throughout all layers of the raft cultures of normal human foreskin keratinocytes, where the staining was confined largely to the cell membranes and the cytoplasm. The raft culture was supported on a collagen matrix (C). Scale bar. 25 µm. b P2X7 immunoreactivity (pink) was present in the raft cultures of normal human foreskin keratinocytes, staining weakly within the uppermost layer (arrows). Scale bar. 25 µm. c P2X5 immunoreactivity (brown) was present in the CIN 612 (HPV 31) raft keratinocytes, staining all layers of the raft. Scale bar. 50 µm. d P2X7 immunoreactivity (pink) was present in the CIN 612 raft and was associated with the cell cytoplasm and nucleus (arrow). Scale bar. 50 µm. e, f High power views of CIN 612 (HPV 31) raft cultures: the uppermost layers are highly disorganised, with nucleated cells at the surface of the raft (arrows). There was also positive staining in the cytoplasm of mitotic cells (double arrows) within the raft for both e P2X5 receptors (brown) Scale bar 25 µm. and f P2X7 receptors (pink). Scale bar. 25 µm.
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Fig3: Expression of P2X5 and P2X7 receptors in paraffin sections of raft cultures of normal human keratinocytes and of CIN 612 (HPV 31) cells. Nuclei were counterstained blue with haematoxylin. a P2X5 immunoreactivity (brown) was present throughout all layers of the raft cultures of normal human foreskin keratinocytes, where the staining was confined largely to the cell membranes and the cytoplasm. The raft culture was supported on a collagen matrix (C). Scale bar. 25 µm. b P2X7 immunoreactivity (pink) was present in the raft cultures of normal human foreskin keratinocytes, staining weakly within the uppermost layer (arrows). Scale bar. 25 µm. c P2X5 immunoreactivity (brown) was present in the CIN 612 (HPV 31) raft keratinocytes, staining all layers of the raft. Scale bar. 50 µm. d P2X7 immunoreactivity (pink) was present in the CIN 612 raft and was associated with the cell cytoplasm and nucleus (arrow). Scale bar. 50 µm. e, f High power views of CIN 612 (HPV 31) raft cultures: the uppermost layers are highly disorganised, with nucleated cells at the surface of the raft (arrows). There was also positive staining in the cytoplasm of mitotic cells (double arrows) within the raft for both e P2X5 receptors (brown) Scale bar 25 µm. and f P2X7 receptors (pink). Scale bar. 25 µm.

Mentions: P2X5 immunoreactivity was present throughout all the layers of the raft cultures of normal human foreskin keratinocytes (Figure 3a), where the staining was confined largely to the cell membranes and the cytoplasm. P2X7 immunoreactivity was present in the raft cultures of normal human foreskin keratinocytes, staining weakly within the uppermost layer (rudimentary stratum corneum) (Figure 3b). The P2X7 receptor staining was not as strikingly positive as with the paraffin section of normal skin (Figure 1b).Figure 3


P2X(5) and P2X(7) receptors in human warts and CIN-612 organotypic raft cultures of human papillomavirus infected keratinocytes.

Greig AV, Cuthill S, Linge C, Clayton E, Burnstock G - Purinergic Signal. (2006)

Expression of P2X5 and P2X7 receptors in paraffin sections of raft cultures of normal human keratinocytes and of CIN 612 (HPV 31) cells. Nuclei were counterstained blue with haematoxylin. a P2X5 immunoreactivity (brown) was present throughout all layers of the raft cultures of normal human foreskin keratinocytes, where the staining was confined largely to the cell membranes and the cytoplasm. The raft culture was supported on a collagen matrix (C). Scale bar. 25 µm. b P2X7 immunoreactivity (pink) was present in the raft cultures of normal human foreskin keratinocytes, staining weakly within the uppermost layer (arrows). Scale bar. 25 µm. c P2X5 immunoreactivity (brown) was present in the CIN 612 (HPV 31) raft keratinocytes, staining all layers of the raft. Scale bar. 50 µm. d P2X7 immunoreactivity (pink) was present in the CIN 612 raft and was associated with the cell cytoplasm and nucleus (arrow). Scale bar. 50 µm. e, f High power views of CIN 612 (HPV 31) raft cultures: the uppermost layers are highly disorganised, with nucleated cells at the surface of the raft (arrows). There was also positive staining in the cytoplasm of mitotic cells (double arrows) within the raft for both e P2X5 receptors (brown) Scale bar 25 µm. and f P2X7 receptors (pink). Scale bar. 25 µm.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig3: Expression of P2X5 and P2X7 receptors in paraffin sections of raft cultures of normal human keratinocytes and of CIN 612 (HPV 31) cells. Nuclei were counterstained blue with haematoxylin. a P2X5 immunoreactivity (brown) was present throughout all layers of the raft cultures of normal human foreskin keratinocytes, where the staining was confined largely to the cell membranes and the cytoplasm. The raft culture was supported on a collagen matrix (C). Scale bar. 25 µm. b P2X7 immunoreactivity (pink) was present in the raft cultures of normal human foreskin keratinocytes, staining weakly within the uppermost layer (arrows). Scale bar. 25 µm. c P2X5 immunoreactivity (brown) was present in the CIN 612 (HPV 31) raft keratinocytes, staining all layers of the raft. Scale bar. 50 µm. d P2X7 immunoreactivity (pink) was present in the CIN 612 raft and was associated with the cell cytoplasm and nucleus (arrow). Scale bar. 50 µm. e, f High power views of CIN 612 (HPV 31) raft cultures: the uppermost layers are highly disorganised, with nucleated cells at the surface of the raft (arrows). There was also positive staining in the cytoplasm of mitotic cells (double arrows) within the raft for both e P2X5 receptors (brown) Scale bar 25 µm. and f P2X7 receptors (pink). Scale bar. 25 µm.
Mentions: P2X5 immunoreactivity was present throughout all the layers of the raft cultures of normal human foreskin keratinocytes (Figure 3a), where the staining was confined largely to the cell membranes and the cytoplasm. P2X7 immunoreactivity was present in the raft cultures of normal human foreskin keratinocytes, staining weakly within the uppermost layer (rudimentary stratum corneum) (Figure 3b). The P2X7 receptor staining was not as strikingly positive as with the paraffin section of normal skin (Figure 1b).Figure 3

Bottom Line: A similar pattern was seen in the CIN 612 raft cultures.Both P2X(5) and P2X(7) receptors were found in the nuclei of koilocytes, abnormal keratinocytes characteristic of human papillomavirus infection.P2X(5) and P2X(7) receptors may provide a new focus for therapeutic research into treatments for warts because these receptors can induce cell differentiation and cell death.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Autonomic Neuroscience Centre, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Rowland Hill Street, London, NW3 2PF, UK.

ABSTRACT
Purinergic receptors, which bind adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), are expressed on human cutaneous keratinocytes and in squamous cell carcinomas. Studies on normal human epidermis and primary keratinocyte cultures have suggested that P2X(5) receptors are likely to be involved in keratinocyte differentiation and P2X(7) receptors are likely to be part of the machinery of end stage terminal differentiation/apoptosis of keratinocytes. P2X(7) receptor agonists can significantly reduce primary keratinocyte cell numbers in culture. Human papillomaviruses are increasingly recognised as important human carcinogens in the development of non-melanoma skin cancers. In our study, immunohistochemical analysis for P2X(5) and P2X(7) receptors was performed on paraffin sections of normal human skin, warts, raft cultures of normal human keratinocytes and raft cultures of CIN 612 cells, a model of keratinocytes infected with human papillomavirus type 31. In warts there was up-regulation of the expression of P2X(5) receptors. A similar pattern was seen in the CIN 612 raft cultures. Both P2X(5) and P2X(7) receptors were found in the nuclei of koilocytes, abnormal keratinocytes characteristic of human papillomavirus infection. P2X(5) and P2X(7) receptors may provide a new focus for therapeutic research into treatments for warts because these receptors can induce cell differentiation and cell death.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus