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Role of information and communication networks in malaria survival.

Mozumder P, Marathe A - Malar. J. (2007)

Bottom Line: The results are robust for both indicators i.e. interpersonal and mass communication networks and for all model specifications examined.Expanded information and communication networks will widen the avenues for community based "participatory development", that encourages the use of local information, knowledge and decision making.Timely information, immediate care and collective knowledge based treatment can be extremely important in reducing child mortality and achieving the millennium development goal.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Studies and International Hurricane Research Center, University Park Campus, MARC 351, 11200 SW8th Street, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA. mozumder@fiu.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Quite often symptoms of malaria go unrecognized or untreated. According to the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria, 70% of the malaria cases that are treated at home are mismanaged. Up to 82% of all malaria episodes in sub-Saharan Africa are treated outside the formal health sector. Fast and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria is extremely important in reducing morbidity and mortality.

Method: Data from 70 different countries is pooled together to construct a panel dataset of health and socio-economic variables for a time span of (1960-2004). The generalized two-stage least squares and panel data models are used to investigate the impact of information and communication network (ICN) variables on malaria death probability. The intensity of ICN is represented by the number of telephone main lines per 1,000 people and the number of television sets per 1,000 people.

Results: The major finding is that the intensity of ICN is associated with reduced probability of deaths of people that are clinically identified as malaria infected. The results are robust for both indicators i.e. interpersonal and mass communication networks and for all model specifications examined.

Conclusion: The results suggest that information and communication networks can substantially scale up the effectiveness of the existing resources for malaria prevention. Resources spent in preventing malaria are far less than needed. Expanded information and communication networks will widen the avenues for community based "participatory development", that encourages the use of local information, knowledge and decision making. Timely information, immediate care and collective knowledge based treatment can be extremely important in reducing child mortality and achieving the millennium development goal.

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Panel data two-stage least squares estimation.
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Figure 2: Panel data two-stage least squares estimation.

Mentions: The intensity of ICN is found to be a significant covariate in explaining the likelihood of deaths of people that are clinically identified as malaria infected. The results are robust for both indicators (i.e. interpersonal and mass communication networks) and for all model specifications examined. Figure 1 shows scatter plots (using lowess smoother) of the fitted values of malaria death probability against telephone density and TV density for both parsimonious and extended models. Figure 2 shows the same plots for panel data models. Two important observations are: (i) TV density shows a stronger negative association with the probability of malaria deaths compared to telephone density (viewed by relatively steeper line for TV density) and (ii) the fitted data points are more scattered in all four graphs of generalized models (in Figure 1) compared to the graphs of panel data models (in Figure 2). This suggests that panel data models which take into account the country specific temporal autocorrelation, provide a better fit of the data analysed.


Role of information and communication networks in malaria survival.

Mozumder P, Marathe A - Malar. J. (2007)

Panel data two-stage least squares estimation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2100069&req=5

Figure 2: Panel data two-stage least squares estimation.
Mentions: The intensity of ICN is found to be a significant covariate in explaining the likelihood of deaths of people that are clinically identified as malaria infected. The results are robust for both indicators (i.e. interpersonal and mass communication networks) and for all model specifications examined. Figure 1 shows scatter plots (using lowess smoother) of the fitted values of malaria death probability against telephone density and TV density for both parsimonious and extended models. Figure 2 shows the same plots for panel data models. Two important observations are: (i) TV density shows a stronger negative association with the probability of malaria deaths compared to telephone density (viewed by relatively steeper line for TV density) and (ii) the fitted data points are more scattered in all four graphs of generalized models (in Figure 1) compared to the graphs of panel data models (in Figure 2). This suggests that panel data models which take into account the country specific temporal autocorrelation, provide a better fit of the data analysed.

Bottom Line: The results are robust for both indicators i.e. interpersonal and mass communication networks and for all model specifications examined.Expanded information and communication networks will widen the avenues for community based "participatory development", that encourages the use of local information, knowledge and decision making.Timely information, immediate care and collective knowledge based treatment can be extremely important in reducing child mortality and achieving the millennium development goal.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Studies and International Hurricane Research Center, University Park Campus, MARC 351, 11200 SW8th Street, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA. mozumder@fiu.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Quite often symptoms of malaria go unrecognized or untreated. According to the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria, 70% of the malaria cases that are treated at home are mismanaged. Up to 82% of all malaria episodes in sub-Saharan Africa are treated outside the formal health sector. Fast and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria is extremely important in reducing morbidity and mortality.

Method: Data from 70 different countries is pooled together to construct a panel dataset of health and socio-economic variables for a time span of (1960-2004). The generalized two-stage least squares and panel data models are used to investigate the impact of information and communication network (ICN) variables on malaria death probability. The intensity of ICN is represented by the number of telephone main lines per 1,000 people and the number of television sets per 1,000 people.

Results: The major finding is that the intensity of ICN is associated with reduced probability of deaths of people that are clinically identified as malaria infected. The results are robust for both indicators i.e. interpersonal and mass communication networks and for all model specifications examined.

Conclusion: The results suggest that information and communication networks can substantially scale up the effectiveness of the existing resources for malaria prevention. Resources spent in preventing malaria are far less than needed. Expanded information and communication networks will widen the avenues for community based "participatory development", that encourages the use of local information, knowledge and decision making. Timely information, immediate care and collective knowledge based treatment can be extremely important in reducing child mortality and achieving the millennium development goal.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus