Limits...
Geographical structures and the cholera epidemic in modern Japan: Fukushima prefecture in 1882 and 1895.

Kuo CL, Fukui H - Int J Health Geogr (2007)

Bottom Line: The data reveal different diffusion systems in separate regions in which residents of Fukushima and neighboring prefectures interacted.Our model also shows that an area in the prefecture's northern interior was dominated by a mix of diffusion processes (contagious and hierarchical), that the southern coastal region was affected by a contagious process, and that other infected areas experienced relocation diffusion.By highlighting the dynamics of regional reorganization, our findings can be used to better understand the formation of an urban hierarchy in late nineteenth century Japan.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Geographic Information Science, Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. jinlin@ntu.edu.tw

ABSTRACT

Background: Disease diffusion patterns can provide clues for understanding geographical change. Fukushima, a rural prefecture in northeast Japan, was chosen for a case study of the late nineteenth century cholera epidemic that occurred in that country. Two volumes of Cholera Ryu-ko Kiji (Cholera Epidemic Report), published by the prefectural government in 1882 and 1895, provide valuable records for analyzing and modelling diffusion. Text descriptions and numerical evidence culled from the reports were incorporated into a temporal-spatial study framework using geographic information system (GIS) and geo-statistical techniques.

Results: Changes in diffusion patterns between 1882 and 1895 reflect improvements in the Fukushima transportation system and growth in social-economic networks. The data reveal different diffusion systems in separate regions in which residents of Fukushima and neighboring prefectures interacted. Our model also shows that an area in the prefecture's northern interior was dominated by a mix of diffusion processes (contagious and hierarchical), that the southern coastal region was affected by a contagious process, and that other infected areas experienced relocation diffusion.

Conclusion: In addition to enhancing our understanding of epidemics, the spatial-temporal patterns of cholera diffusion offer opportunities for studying regional change in modern Japan. By highlighting the dynamics of regional reorganization, our findings can be used to better understand the formation of an urban hierarchy in late nineteenth century Japan.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Structure of 1895 outbreak diffusion systems.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1941729&req=5

Figure 6: Structure of 1895 outbreak diffusion systems.

Mentions: Differences in diffusion patterns can be explained by specific geographical contexts and regional interactions. In this case study, results from diffusion models shed light on the emergence of an urban system within the identified diffusion systems. Specifically, the distribution of infected villages by size may represent such an emergence during the cholera outbreaks. Our finding that the Miyagi diffusion system consisted of a mix of hierarchical and contagious processes suggests the formation of a small urban system in the northern inland area of Fukushima prefecture. Figure 6 illustrates the structure of the Miyagi diffusion system, in which Fukushima-cho (Fukushima City) was the major centre. Due to increased accessibility and interactions along transport networks, the larger villages and towns in the Miyagi diffusion system may have been hierarchically integrated into a larger urban system shared with its northeast neighbouring prefecture.


Geographical structures and the cholera epidemic in modern Japan: Fukushima prefecture in 1882 and 1895.

Kuo CL, Fukui H - Int J Health Geogr (2007)

Structure of 1895 outbreak diffusion systems.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1941729&req=5

Figure 6: Structure of 1895 outbreak diffusion systems.
Mentions: Differences in diffusion patterns can be explained by specific geographical contexts and regional interactions. In this case study, results from diffusion models shed light on the emergence of an urban system within the identified diffusion systems. Specifically, the distribution of infected villages by size may represent such an emergence during the cholera outbreaks. Our finding that the Miyagi diffusion system consisted of a mix of hierarchical and contagious processes suggests the formation of a small urban system in the northern inland area of Fukushima prefecture. Figure 6 illustrates the structure of the Miyagi diffusion system, in which Fukushima-cho (Fukushima City) was the major centre. Due to increased accessibility and interactions along transport networks, the larger villages and towns in the Miyagi diffusion system may have been hierarchically integrated into a larger urban system shared with its northeast neighbouring prefecture.

Bottom Line: The data reveal different diffusion systems in separate regions in which residents of Fukushima and neighboring prefectures interacted.Our model also shows that an area in the prefecture's northern interior was dominated by a mix of diffusion processes (contagious and hierarchical), that the southern coastal region was affected by a contagious process, and that other infected areas experienced relocation diffusion.By highlighting the dynamics of regional reorganization, our findings can be used to better understand the formation of an urban hierarchy in late nineteenth century Japan.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Geographic Information Science, Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. jinlin@ntu.edu.tw

ABSTRACT

Background: Disease diffusion patterns can provide clues for understanding geographical change. Fukushima, a rural prefecture in northeast Japan, was chosen for a case study of the late nineteenth century cholera epidemic that occurred in that country. Two volumes of Cholera Ryu-ko Kiji (Cholera Epidemic Report), published by the prefectural government in 1882 and 1895, provide valuable records for analyzing and modelling diffusion. Text descriptions and numerical evidence culled from the reports were incorporated into a temporal-spatial study framework using geographic information system (GIS) and geo-statistical techniques.

Results: Changes in diffusion patterns between 1882 and 1895 reflect improvements in the Fukushima transportation system and growth in social-economic networks. The data reveal different diffusion systems in separate regions in which residents of Fukushima and neighboring prefectures interacted. Our model also shows that an area in the prefecture's northern interior was dominated by a mix of diffusion processes (contagious and hierarchical), that the southern coastal region was affected by a contagious process, and that other infected areas experienced relocation diffusion.

Conclusion: In addition to enhancing our understanding of epidemics, the spatial-temporal patterns of cholera diffusion offer opportunities for studying regional change in modern Japan. By highlighting the dynamics of regional reorganization, our findings can be used to better understand the formation of an urban hierarchy in late nineteenth century Japan.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus