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Screen for ISG15-crossreactive deubiquitinases.

Catic A, Fiebiger E, Korbel GA, Blom D, Galardy PJ, Ploegh HL - PLoS ONE (2007)

Bottom Line: USP14 is a proteasome-associated DUB, and its ISG15 isopeptidase activity increases when complexed with the proteasome.By evolutionary standards, ISG15 is a newcomer among the UbLs and it apparently not only utilizes the conjugating but also the deconjugating machinery of its more established relative ubiquitin.Functional overlap between these two posttranslational modifiers might therefore be more extensive than previously appreciated and explain the rather innocuous phenotype of ISG15 mice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Program in Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: The family of ubiquitin-like molecules (UbLs) comprises several members, each of which has sequence, structural, or functional similarity to ubiquitin. ISG15 is a homolog of ubiquitin in vertebrates and is strongly upregulated following induction by type I interferon. ISG15 can be covalently attached to proteins, analogous to ubiquitination and with actual support of ubiquitin conjugating factors. Specific proteases are able to reverse modification with ubiquitin or UbLs by hydrolyzing the covalent bond between their C-termini and substrate proteins. The tail regions of ubiquitin and ISG15 are identical and we therefore hypothesized that promiscuous deubiquitinating proteases (DUBs) might exist, capable of recognizing both ubiquitin and ISG15.

Results: We have cloned and expressed 22 human DUBs, representing the major clades of the USP protease family. Utilizing suicide inhibitors based on ubiquitin and ISG15, we have identified USP2, USP5 (IsoT1), USP13 (IsoT3), and USP14 as ISG15-reactive proteases, in addition to the bona fide ISG15-specific protease USP18 (UBP43). USP14 is a proteasome-associated DUB, and its ISG15 isopeptidase activity increases when complexed with the proteasome.

Conclusions: By evolutionary standards, ISG15 is a newcomer among the UbLs and it apparently not only utilizes the conjugating but also the deconjugating machinery of its more established relative ubiquitin. Functional overlap between these two posttranslational modifiers might therefore be more extensive than previously appreciated and explain the rather innocuous phenotype of ISG15 mice.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Unexpected apparent molecular mass of ISG15VS-DUB adducts is caused by unusual behavior in SDS-PAGE.(A) Plot showing the ratio of observed versus expected ISG15VS-DUB adduct size of USP2, USP5, USP13, USP14 and USP18 in SDS-PAGE (8%) over the size of the unmodified DUBs. (B) Mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue to serine (C114S) in USP14 abolishes its reactivity toward UbVME and ISG15VS. When stored for longer periods at room temperature, the probes polymerize covalently, presumably by formation of secondary amine bonds between internal lysine residues and the reactive Michael acceptor at the C-terminus, thus resembling isopeptide-linked polyubiquitin. Such polymeric probes of UbVME likely caused the additional high-molecular mass adducts observed for USP14. Note that the smallest version of these adducts (a UbVME dimer) has a maximum electrophoretic mobility similar to that of the diubiquitin-like ISG15VS when complexed to USP14. The absence of any adducts in the C114S mutant of USP14 excludes the possibility of multiple binding sites for the probes. (C) Purified recombinant USP14 labels with UbVME and ISG15VS and results in the same abnormal mobility shift for ISG15VS-USP14 as seen in the IVT labeling experiments. (D) MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopic analysis of USP14 after incubation with ISG15VS. As described above for UbVME, ISG15VS also engages in internal polymerization. Molecular masses consistent with tri- and tetrameric ISG15VS are marked in this spectrogram by the numbers in superscript. Monovalently modified USP14 results in an adduct of predicted size, indicated with a red arrow. This complex is unique to the mixture containing both USP14 and ISG15VS, and is absent in the mass spectra of either component alone (data not shown).
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pone-0000679-g003: Unexpected apparent molecular mass of ISG15VS-DUB adducts is caused by unusual behavior in SDS-PAGE.(A) Plot showing the ratio of observed versus expected ISG15VS-DUB adduct size of USP2, USP5, USP13, USP14 and USP18 in SDS-PAGE (8%) over the size of the unmodified DUBs. (B) Mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue to serine (C114S) in USP14 abolishes its reactivity toward UbVME and ISG15VS. When stored for longer periods at room temperature, the probes polymerize covalently, presumably by formation of secondary amine bonds between internal lysine residues and the reactive Michael acceptor at the C-terminus, thus resembling isopeptide-linked polyubiquitin. Such polymeric probes of UbVME likely caused the additional high-molecular mass adducts observed for USP14. Note that the smallest version of these adducts (a UbVME dimer) has a maximum electrophoretic mobility similar to that of the diubiquitin-like ISG15VS when complexed to USP14. The absence of any adducts in the C114S mutant of USP14 excludes the possibility of multiple binding sites for the probes. (C) Purified recombinant USP14 labels with UbVME and ISG15VS and results in the same abnormal mobility shift for ISG15VS-USP14 as seen in the IVT labeling experiments. (D) MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopic analysis of USP14 after incubation with ISG15VS. As described above for UbVME, ISG15VS also engages in internal polymerization. Molecular masses consistent with tri- and tetrameric ISG15VS are marked in this spectrogram by the numbers in superscript. Monovalently modified USP14 results in an adduct of predicted size, indicated with a red arrow. This complex is unique to the mixture containing both USP14 and ISG15VS, and is absent in the mass spectra of either component alone (data not shown).

Mentions: In accordance with previous results [28], we observed a non-linear decrease in electrophoretic mobility of the ISG15VS adducts. The ISG15 probe has a mass of 17.4 kDa, whereas the size increase observed for each of the DUBs investigated here is in the order of 25–110 kDa, when bound to ISG15VS. The correlation between the abnormal shift and the initial mass of the unmodified DUB suggests that the decrease in gel mobility is based on steric properties of the branched adduct, and is not caused by covalent modification of a single DUB by multiple ISG15VS molecules. In fact, in our sample set, the observed size increase of the ISG15VS-DUB adducts based on SDS-PAGE very closely matched a logarithmic equation (Figure 3A and see Methods). To further verify that DUBs are modified by only a single ISG15VS probe per molecule, we replaced the catalytic cysteine at position 114 in USP14 with a serine residue. As expected, this mutation abolished all labeling (Figure 3B). Our assay was conducted in IVT lysate and the size increase of the ISG15VS adduct could potentially reflect modification of USP14 by additional factors. However, even USP14 that was recombinantly expressed in bacteria and >95% pure showed the same abnormal electrophoretic mobility for its ISG15VS adduct (Figure 3C). Mass spectrometry confirmed the monovalent modification of purified USP14 by ISG15VS and excluded covalent binding of additional factors to the complex (Figure 3D). Collectively, these experiments establish that the observed shift in apparent molecular mass of the ISG15VS-DUB adducts is solely a consequence of its unusual electrophoretic behavior. It also underscores the uncertainties in estimating the degree of modification of a target protein with UbLs by SDS-PAGE alone.


Screen for ISG15-crossreactive deubiquitinases.

Catic A, Fiebiger E, Korbel GA, Blom D, Galardy PJ, Ploegh HL - PLoS ONE (2007)

Unexpected apparent molecular mass of ISG15VS-DUB adducts is caused by unusual behavior in SDS-PAGE.(A) Plot showing the ratio of observed versus expected ISG15VS-DUB adduct size of USP2, USP5, USP13, USP14 and USP18 in SDS-PAGE (8%) over the size of the unmodified DUBs. (B) Mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue to serine (C114S) in USP14 abolishes its reactivity toward UbVME and ISG15VS. When stored for longer periods at room temperature, the probes polymerize covalently, presumably by formation of secondary amine bonds between internal lysine residues and the reactive Michael acceptor at the C-terminus, thus resembling isopeptide-linked polyubiquitin. Such polymeric probes of UbVME likely caused the additional high-molecular mass adducts observed for USP14. Note that the smallest version of these adducts (a UbVME dimer) has a maximum electrophoretic mobility similar to that of the diubiquitin-like ISG15VS when complexed to USP14. The absence of any adducts in the C114S mutant of USP14 excludes the possibility of multiple binding sites for the probes. (C) Purified recombinant USP14 labels with UbVME and ISG15VS and results in the same abnormal mobility shift for ISG15VS-USP14 as seen in the IVT labeling experiments. (D) MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopic analysis of USP14 after incubation with ISG15VS. As described above for UbVME, ISG15VS also engages in internal polymerization. Molecular masses consistent with tri- and tetrameric ISG15VS are marked in this spectrogram by the numbers in superscript. Monovalently modified USP14 results in an adduct of predicted size, indicated with a red arrow. This complex is unique to the mixture containing both USP14 and ISG15VS, and is absent in the mass spectra of either component alone (data not shown).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1919423&req=5

pone-0000679-g003: Unexpected apparent molecular mass of ISG15VS-DUB adducts is caused by unusual behavior in SDS-PAGE.(A) Plot showing the ratio of observed versus expected ISG15VS-DUB adduct size of USP2, USP5, USP13, USP14 and USP18 in SDS-PAGE (8%) over the size of the unmodified DUBs. (B) Mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue to serine (C114S) in USP14 abolishes its reactivity toward UbVME and ISG15VS. When stored for longer periods at room temperature, the probes polymerize covalently, presumably by formation of secondary amine bonds between internal lysine residues and the reactive Michael acceptor at the C-terminus, thus resembling isopeptide-linked polyubiquitin. Such polymeric probes of UbVME likely caused the additional high-molecular mass adducts observed for USP14. Note that the smallest version of these adducts (a UbVME dimer) has a maximum electrophoretic mobility similar to that of the diubiquitin-like ISG15VS when complexed to USP14. The absence of any adducts in the C114S mutant of USP14 excludes the possibility of multiple binding sites for the probes. (C) Purified recombinant USP14 labels with UbVME and ISG15VS and results in the same abnormal mobility shift for ISG15VS-USP14 as seen in the IVT labeling experiments. (D) MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopic analysis of USP14 after incubation with ISG15VS. As described above for UbVME, ISG15VS also engages in internal polymerization. Molecular masses consistent with tri- and tetrameric ISG15VS are marked in this spectrogram by the numbers in superscript. Monovalently modified USP14 results in an adduct of predicted size, indicated with a red arrow. This complex is unique to the mixture containing both USP14 and ISG15VS, and is absent in the mass spectra of either component alone (data not shown).
Mentions: In accordance with previous results [28], we observed a non-linear decrease in electrophoretic mobility of the ISG15VS adducts. The ISG15 probe has a mass of 17.4 kDa, whereas the size increase observed for each of the DUBs investigated here is in the order of 25–110 kDa, when bound to ISG15VS. The correlation between the abnormal shift and the initial mass of the unmodified DUB suggests that the decrease in gel mobility is based on steric properties of the branched adduct, and is not caused by covalent modification of a single DUB by multiple ISG15VS molecules. In fact, in our sample set, the observed size increase of the ISG15VS-DUB adducts based on SDS-PAGE very closely matched a logarithmic equation (Figure 3A and see Methods). To further verify that DUBs are modified by only a single ISG15VS probe per molecule, we replaced the catalytic cysteine at position 114 in USP14 with a serine residue. As expected, this mutation abolished all labeling (Figure 3B). Our assay was conducted in IVT lysate and the size increase of the ISG15VS adduct could potentially reflect modification of USP14 by additional factors. However, even USP14 that was recombinantly expressed in bacteria and >95% pure showed the same abnormal electrophoretic mobility for its ISG15VS adduct (Figure 3C). Mass spectrometry confirmed the monovalent modification of purified USP14 by ISG15VS and excluded covalent binding of additional factors to the complex (Figure 3D). Collectively, these experiments establish that the observed shift in apparent molecular mass of the ISG15VS-DUB adducts is solely a consequence of its unusual electrophoretic behavior. It also underscores the uncertainties in estimating the degree of modification of a target protein with UbLs by SDS-PAGE alone.

Bottom Line: USP14 is a proteasome-associated DUB, and its ISG15 isopeptidase activity increases when complexed with the proteasome.By evolutionary standards, ISG15 is a newcomer among the UbLs and it apparently not only utilizes the conjugating but also the deconjugating machinery of its more established relative ubiquitin.Functional overlap between these two posttranslational modifiers might therefore be more extensive than previously appreciated and explain the rather innocuous phenotype of ISG15 mice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Program in Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: The family of ubiquitin-like molecules (UbLs) comprises several members, each of which has sequence, structural, or functional similarity to ubiquitin. ISG15 is a homolog of ubiquitin in vertebrates and is strongly upregulated following induction by type I interferon. ISG15 can be covalently attached to proteins, analogous to ubiquitination and with actual support of ubiquitin conjugating factors. Specific proteases are able to reverse modification with ubiquitin or UbLs by hydrolyzing the covalent bond between their C-termini and substrate proteins. The tail regions of ubiquitin and ISG15 are identical and we therefore hypothesized that promiscuous deubiquitinating proteases (DUBs) might exist, capable of recognizing both ubiquitin and ISG15.

Results: We have cloned and expressed 22 human DUBs, representing the major clades of the USP protease family. Utilizing suicide inhibitors based on ubiquitin and ISG15, we have identified USP2, USP5 (IsoT1), USP13 (IsoT3), and USP14 as ISG15-reactive proteases, in addition to the bona fide ISG15-specific protease USP18 (UBP43). USP14 is a proteasome-associated DUB, and its ISG15 isopeptidase activity increases when complexed with the proteasome.

Conclusions: By evolutionary standards, ISG15 is a newcomer among the UbLs and it apparently not only utilizes the conjugating but also the deconjugating machinery of its more established relative ubiquitin. Functional overlap between these two posttranslational modifiers might therefore be more extensive than previously appreciated and explain the rather innocuous phenotype of ISG15 mice.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus