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The identity, distribution, and impacts of non-native apple snails in the continental United States.

Rawlings TA, Hayes KA, Cowie RH, Collins TM - BMC Evol. Biol. (2007)

Bottom Line: Based on sampling to date, we conclude there are five species of non-native apple snails in the continental U.S. Most significantly, we recognize three species within what has been called the channeled apple snail: Pomacea canaliculata (California and Arizona), Pomacea insularum, (Florida, Texas, and Georgia) and Pomacea haustrum (Florida).The term "channeled apple snail" is descriptive of a morphology found in many apple snail species.It does not identify a single species or a monophyletic group.

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Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, University Park, Miami, Florida 33199, USA. Timothy_Rawlings@capebretonu.ca <Timothy_Rawlings@capebretonu.ca>

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the mid 1990s populations of non-native apple snails (Ampullariidae) have been discovered with increasing frequency in the continental United States. Given the dramatic effects that introduced apple snails have had on both natural habitats and agricultural areas in Southeast Asia, their introduction to the mainland U.S. is cause for concern. We combine phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences with examination of introduced populations and museum collections to clarify the identities, introduced distributions, geographical origins, and introduction histories of apple snails.

Results: Based on sampling to date, we conclude there are five species of non-native apple snails in the continental U.S. Most significantly, we recognize three species within what has been called the channeled apple snail: Pomacea canaliculata (California and Arizona), Pomacea insularum, (Florida, Texas, and Georgia) and Pomacea haustrum (Florida). The first established populations of P. haustrum were discovered in the late 1970s in Palm Beach County Florida, and have not spread appreciably in 30 years. In contrast, populations of P. insularum were established in Texas by 1989, in Florida by the mid to late 1990s, and in Georgia by 2005, and this species continues to spread rapidly. Most introduced P. insularum haplotypes are a close match to haplotypes from the Río Uruguay near Buenos Aires, indicating cold tolerance, with the potential to spread from Florida, Georgia, and Texas through Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Pomacea canaliculata populations were first discovered in California in 1997. Haplotypes of introduced P. canaliculata match native-range haplotypes from near Buenos Aires, Argentina, also indicating cold tolerance and the potential to establish farther north.

Conclusion: The term "channeled apple snail" is descriptive of a morphology found in many apple snail species. It does not identify a single species or a monophyletic group. Clarifying species identifications permits a more accurate assessment of introduction histories and distributions, and provides a very different picture of the tempo and pattern of invasions than was inferred when the three species with channeled sutures were considered one. Matching introduced and native-range haplotypes suggests the potential for range expansion, with implications for native aquatic ecosystems and species, agriculture, and human health.

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Maturation of Pomacea paludosa eggs. Maturation from freshly laid salmon colored eggs in a thick mucus matrix (left), to the mature pinkish white eggs in calcified shells (right). Scale Bar: 5 cm.
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Figure 11: Maturation of Pomacea paludosa eggs. Maturation from freshly laid salmon colored eggs in a thick mucus matrix (left), to the mature pinkish white eggs in calcified shells (right). Scale Bar: 5 cm.

Mentions: P. insularum also poses threats for the native apple snail, Pomacea paludosa, and the species that rely on it for food. Pomacea paludosa is recognized by its size (40–70 mm height), low spire, absence of a channel at the suture, and distinctive egg masses [8]. Mature egg masses have an average of thirty round pale pink to white eggs averaging 4 mm in size in grape-like clusters [47] (Fig. 3d), although when freshly laid, the eggs are pale orange salmon colored and in a thick mucus matrix (Fig. 11). Those planning control measures aimed at non-native apple snails in Florida must ensure they have not inadvertently targeted the native apple snails or their eggs.


The identity, distribution, and impacts of non-native apple snails in the continental United States.

Rawlings TA, Hayes KA, Cowie RH, Collins TM - BMC Evol. Biol. (2007)

Maturation of Pomacea paludosa eggs. Maturation from freshly laid salmon colored eggs in a thick mucus matrix (left), to the mature pinkish white eggs in calcified shells (right). Scale Bar: 5 cm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1919357&req=5

Figure 11: Maturation of Pomacea paludosa eggs. Maturation from freshly laid salmon colored eggs in a thick mucus matrix (left), to the mature pinkish white eggs in calcified shells (right). Scale Bar: 5 cm.
Mentions: P. insularum also poses threats for the native apple snail, Pomacea paludosa, and the species that rely on it for food. Pomacea paludosa is recognized by its size (40–70 mm height), low spire, absence of a channel at the suture, and distinctive egg masses [8]. Mature egg masses have an average of thirty round pale pink to white eggs averaging 4 mm in size in grape-like clusters [47] (Fig. 3d), although when freshly laid, the eggs are pale orange salmon colored and in a thick mucus matrix (Fig. 11). Those planning control measures aimed at non-native apple snails in Florida must ensure they have not inadvertently targeted the native apple snails or their eggs.

Bottom Line: Based on sampling to date, we conclude there are five species of non-native apple snails in the continental U.S. Most significantly, we recognize three species within what has been called the channeled apple snail: Pomacea canaliculata (California and Arizona), Pomacea insularum, (Florida, Texas, and Georgia) and Pomacea haustrum (Florida).The term "channeled apple snail" is descriptive of a morphology found in many apple snail species.It does not identify a single species or a monophyletic group.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, University Park, Miami, Florida 33199, USA. Timothy_Rawlings@capebretonu.ca <Timothy_Rawlings@capebretonu.ca>

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the mid 1990s populations of non-native apple snails (Ampullariidae) have been discovered with increasing frequency in the continental United States. Given the dramatic effects that introduced apple snails have had on both natural habitats and agricultural areas in Southeast Asia, their introduction to the mainland U.S. is cause for concern. We combine phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences with examination of introduced populations and museum collections to clarify the identities, introduced distributions, geographical origins, and introduction histories of apple snails.

Results: Based on sampling to date, we conclude there are five species of non-native apple snails in the continental U.S. Most significantly, we recognize three species within what has been called the channeled apple snail: Pomacea canaliculata (California and Arizona), Pomacea insularum, (Florida, Texas, and Georgia) and Pomacea haustrum (Florida). The first established populations of P. haustrum were discovered in the late 1970s in Palm Beach County Florida, and have not spread appreciably in 30 years. In contrast, populations of P. insularum were established in Texas by 1989, in Florida by the mid to late 1990s, and in Georgia by 2005, and this species continues to spread rapidly. Most introduced P. insularum haplotypes are a close match to haplotypes from the Río Uruguay near Buenos Aires, indicating cold tolerance, with the potential to spread from Florida, Georgia, and Texas through Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Pomacea canaliculata populations were first discovered in California in 1997. Haplotypes of introduced P. canaliculata match native-range haplotypes from near Buenos Aires, Argentina, also indicating cold tolerance and the potential to establish farther north.

Conclusion: The term "channeled apple snail" is descriptive of a morphology found in many apple snail species. It does not identify a single species or a monophyletic group. Clarifying species identifications permits a more accurate assessment of introduction histories and distributions, and provides a very different picture of the tempo and pattern of invasions than was inferred when the three species with channeled sutures were considered one. Matching introduced and native-range haplotypes suggests the potential for range expansion, with implications for native aquatic ecosystems and species, agriculture, and human health.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus