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DNA damage, homology-directed repair, and DNA methylation.

Cuozzo C, Porcellini A, Angrisano T, Morano A, Lee B, Di Pardo A, Messina S, Iuliano R, Fusco A, Santillo MR, Muller MT, Chiariotti L, Gottesman ME, Avvedimento EV - PLoS Genet. (2007)

Bottom Line: Silencing was rapid and associated with HR and DNA methylation of the recombinant gene, since it was prevented in Hela cells by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.Chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA analysis revealed that DNA methyl transferase 1 was bound specifically to HR GFP DNA and that methylation of the repaired segment contributed to the silencing of GFP expression.Taken together, our data support a mechanistic link between HR and DNA methylation and suggest that DNA methylation in eukaryotes marks homologous recombined segments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Molecolare e Cellulare, Istituto di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Sperimentale del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Università Federico II, Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
To explore the link between DNA damage and gene silencing, we induced a DNA double-strand break in the genome of Hela or mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells using I-SceI restriction endonuclease. The I-SceI site lies within one copy of two inactivated tandem repeated green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes (DR-GFP). A total of 2%-4% of the cells generated a functional GFP by homology-directed repair (HR) and gene conversion. However, approximately 50% of these recombinants expressed GFP poorly. Silencing was rapid and associated with HR and DNA methylation of the recombinant gene, since it was prevented in Hela cells by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. ES cells deficient in DNA methyl transferase 1 yielded as many recombinants as wild-type cells, but most of these recombinants expressed GFP robustly. Half of the HR DNA molecules were de novo methylated, principally downstream to the double-strand break, and half were undermethylated relative to the uncut DNA. Methylation of the repaired gene was independent of the methylation status of the converting template. The methylation pattern of recombinant molecules derived from pools of cells carrying DR-GFP at different loci, or from an individual clone carrying DR-GFP at a single locus, was comparable. ClustalW analysis of the sequenced GFP molecules in Hela and ES cells distinguished recombinant and nonrecombinant DNA solely on the basis of their methylation profile and indicated that HR superimposed novel methylation profiles on top of the old patterns. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA analysis revealed that DNA methyl transferase 1 was bound specifically to HR GFP DNA and that methylation of the repaired segment contributed to the silencing of GFP expression. Taken together, our data support a mechanistic link between HR and DNA methylation and suggest that DNA methylation in eukaryotes marks homologous recombined segments.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Biological Consequences of Recombination-Induced Methylation SwitchA drawing illustrates the sequence of events leading to silencing or expression of HR DNA segments. Red circles represent de novo methylated CpGs induced by HR. Black circles represent methylated CpGs before HR. Since silencing depends on the location of de novo methylated CpGs and DNA damage is random, HR-induced methylation is also random. If the expression of the repaired gene is harmful, only cells inheriting the silenced copy will survive. Conversely, if the function of the repaired gene is beneficial, cells inheriting the undermethylated copy will have a selective advantage.
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pgen-0030110-g012: Biological Consequences of Recombination-Induced Methylation SwitchA drawing illustrates the sequence of events leading to silencing or expression of HR DNA segments. Red circles represent de novo methylated CpGs induced by HR. Black circles represent methylated CpGs before HR. Since silencing depends on the location of de novo methylated CpGs and DNA damage is random, HR-induced methylation is also random. If the expression of the repaired gene is harmful, only cells inheriting the silenced copy will survive. Conversely, if the function of the repaired gene is beneficial, cells inheriting the undermethylated copy will have a selective advantage.

Mentions: In conclusion, these results argue for a cause-effect relation between HR repair and de novo DNA methylation. Discontinuous LOH is a signature of oxidative DNA damage and closely resembles a mutational pattern found in human tumors [26]. Hypermethylation of short DNA tracts in tumors or in aging represents the consequence of gene conversion. We note that silencing of tumor suppressor genes by methylation is characteristic of tumor cells [27]. Indeed, evidence of enhanced DSB formation in hyperplastic precancerous cells precedes the genomic instability and loss of p53 characteristic of more advanced tumors [28,29]. Selection of methylated silenced alleles will eliminate unmethylated ones from the population (Figure 12).


DNA damage, homology-directed repair, and DNA methylation.

Cuozzo C, Porcellini A, Angrisano T, Morano A, Lee B, Di Pardo A, Messina S, Iuliano R, Fusco A, Santillo MR, Muller MT, Chiariotti L, Gottesman ME, Avvedimento EV - PLoS Genet. (2007)

Biological Consequences of Recombination-Induced Methylation SwitchA drawing illustrates the sequence of events leading to silencing or expression of HR DNA segments. Red circles represent de novo methylated CpGs induced by HR. Black circles represent methylated CpGs before HR. Since silencing depends on the location of de novo methylated CpGs and DNA damage is random, HR-induced methylation is also random. If the expression of the repaired gene is harmful, only cells inheriting the silenced copy will survive. Conversely, if the function of the repaired gene is beneficial, cells inheriting the undermethylated copy will have a selective advantage.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1913100&req=5

pgen-0030110-g012: Biological Consequences of Recombination-Induced Methylation SwitchA drawing illustrates the sequence of events leading to silencing or expression of HR DNA segments. Red circles represent de novo methylated CpGs induced by HR. Black circles represent methylated CpGs before HR. Since silencing depends on the location of de novo methylated CpGs and DNA damage is random, HR-induced methylation is also random. If the expression of the repaired gene is harmful, only cells inheriting the silenced copy will survive. Conversely, if the function of the repaired gene is beneficial, cells inheriting the undermethylated copy will have a selective advantage.
Mentions: In conclusion, these results argue for a cause-effect relation between HR repair and de novo DNA methylation. Discontinuous LOH is a signature of oxidative DNA damage and closely resembles a mutational pattern found in human tumors [26]. Hypermethylation of short DNA tracts in tumors or in aging represents the consequence of gene conversion. We note that silencing of tumor suppressor genes by methylation is characteristic of tumor cells [27]. Indeed, evidence of enhanced DSB formation in hyperplastic precancerous cells precedes the genomic instability and loss of p53 characteristic of more advanced tumors [28,29]. Selection of methylated silenced alleles will eliminate unmethylated ones from the population (Figure 12).

Bottom Line: Silencing was rapid and associated with HR and DNA methylation of the recombinant gene, since it was prevented in Hela cells by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.Chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA analysis revealed that DNA methyl transferase 1 was bound specifically to HR GFP DNA and that methylation of the repaired segment contributed to the silencing of GFP expression.Taken together, our data support a mechanistic link between HR and DNA methylation and suggest that DNA methylation in eukaryotes marks homologous recombined segments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Molecolare e Cellulare, Istituto di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Sperimentale del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Università Federico II, Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
To explore the link between DNA damage and gene silencing, we induced a DNA double-strand break in the genome of Hela or mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells using I-SceI restriction endonuclease. The I-SceI site lies within one copy of two inactivated tandem repeated green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes (DR-GFP). A total of 2%-4% of the cells generated a functional GFP by homology-directed repair (HR) and gene conversion. However, approximately 50% of these recombinants expressed GFP poorly. Silencing was rapid and associated with HR and DNA methylation of the recombinant gene, since it was prevented in Hela cells by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. ES cells deficient in DNA methyl transferase 1 yielded as many recombinants as wild-type cells, but most of these recombinants expressed GFP robustly. Half of the HR DNA molecules were de novo methylated, principally downstream to the double-strand break, and half were undermethylated relative to the uncut DNA. Methylation of the repaired gene was independent of the methylation status of the converting template. The methylation pattern of recombinant molecules derived from pools of cells carrying DR-GFP at different loci, or from an individual clone carrying DR-GFP at a single locus, was comparable. ClustalW analysis of the sequenced GFP molecules in Hela and ES cells distinguished recombinant and nonrecombinant DNA solely on the basis of their methylation profile and indicated that HR superimposed novel methylation profiles on top of the old patterns. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA analysis revealed that DNA methyl transferase 1 was bound specifically to HR GFP DNA and that methylation of the repaired segment contributed to the silencing of GFP expression. Taken together, our data support a mechanistic link between HR and DNA methylation and suggest that DNA methylation in eukaryotes marks homologous recombined segments.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus