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Clouded leopard phylogeny revisited: support for species recognition and population division between Borneo and Sumatra.

Wilting A, Buckley-Beason VA, Feldhaar H, Gadau J, O'brien SJ, Linsenmair KE - Front. Zool. (2007)

Bottom Line: We found strong support for the distinction between N. nebulosa and N. diardi based on three fragments of mtDNA (900 bp) and 18 microsatellites.Additionally, a significant population subdivision was apparent among N. diardi from Sumatra and Borneo based on mtDNA and microsatellite data.The reduced gene flow between Borneo and Sumatra might suggest the recognition of two subspecies of N. diardi.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Würzburg, Biocentre, Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology, 97074 Würzburg, Germany. a.wilting@gmx.de

ABSTRACT

Background: The clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is one of the least known cat species and depletion of their forested habitats puts it under heavy pressure. Recently reclassification of Bornean clouded leopards (N. nebulosa diardi) to species level (N.diardi) was suggested based on molecular and morphological evidence. Since the genetic results were based solely on three Bornean samples we re-evaluated this partition using additional samples of Bornean clouded leopards (N = 7) and we were also able to include specimens from Sumatra (N = 3), which were lacking in previous analysis.

Results: We found strong support for the distinction between N. nebulosa and N. diardi based on three fragments of mtDNA (900 bp) and 18 microsatellites. Forty-one fixed mitochondrial nucleotide differences and non-overlapping allele sizes in 8 of 18 microsatellite loci distinguished N. nebulosa and N. diardi. This is equivalent to the genetic divergence among recognized species in the genus Panthera. Sumatran clouded leopards clustered with specimens from Borneo, suggesting that Sumatran individuals also belong to N. diardi. Additionally, a significant population subdivision was apparent among N. diardi from Sumatra and Borneo based on mtDNA and microsatellite data.

Conclusion: Referring to their origin on two Sunda Islands we propose to give N. diardi the common name "Sundaland clouded leopard". The reduced gene flow between Borneo and Sumatra might suggest the recognition of two subspecies of N. diardi. Based on this reclassification of clouded leopards not only species, but also the populations on Borneo and Sumatra should be managed separately and a higher priority should be placed to protect the different populations from extinction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic relationships among the individual clouded leopards from composite microsatellite genotypes of 18 loci. One Panthera pardus sample and two Felis catus samples were included as outgroups. Branches of the same greyscale represent individuals from the same geographical region. Trees are based on the proportion of shared alleles (Dps) and kinship coefficient (Dkf) genetic distances with 1 – (kf/ps) option in MICROSAT [65] produced identical topologies. Dps tree is shown here. Bootstrap values over 70 % are shown on the divergence node (Dps/Dkf). ID codes are shown in Table 1.
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Figure 3: Phylogenetic relationships among the individual clouded leopards from composite microsatellite genotypes of 18 loci. One Panthera pardus sample and two Felis catus samples were included as outgroups. Branches of the same greyscale represent individuals from the same geographical region. Trees are based on the proportion of shared alleles (Dps) and kinship coefficient (Dkf) genetic distances with 1 – (kf/ps) option in MICROSAT [65] produced identical topologies. Dps tree is shown here. Bootstrap values over 70 % are shown on the divergence node (Dps/Dkf). ID codes are shown in Table 1.

Mentions: Neighbor-joining analysis of individual clouded leopard genotypes based on two microsatellite genetic distance estimators (Dps & Dkf) produced concordant topologies; both trees support the species distinction among clouded leopards (Figure 3). Individuals from Borneo and Sumatra form a monophyletic clade with 100 % (Dps & Dkf) bootstrap support (BS) distinguishing them from mainland specimens and the outgroups. The microsatellite analysis lends further support to the phylogeographic subdivision observed in mtDNA analysis between Borneo and Sumatra individuals, however with lower bootstrap support values (Sumatra clade with 69 % Dps/61%Dkf BS, and Borneo clade with 50/46 % BS).


Clouded leopard phylogeny revisited: support for species recognition and population division between Borneo and Sumatra.

Wilting A, Buckley-Beason VA, Feldhaar H, Gadau J, O'brien SJ, Linsenmair KE - Front. Zool. (2007)

Phylogenetic relationships among the individual clouded leopards from composite microsatellite genotypes of 18 loci. One Panthera pardus sample and two Felis catus samples were included as outgroups. Branches of the same greyscale represent individuals from the same geographical region. Trees are based on the proportion of shared alleles (Dps) and kinship coefficient (Dkf) genetic distances with 1 – (kf/ps) option in MICROSAT [65] produced identical topologies. Dps tree is shown here. Bootstrap values over 70 % are shown on the divergence node (Dps/Dkf). ID codes are shown in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1904214&req=5

Figure 3: Phylogenetic relationships among the individual clouded leopards from composite microsatellite genotypes of 18 loci. One Panthera pardus sample and two Felis catus samples were included as outgroups. Branches of the same greyscale represent individuals from the same geographical region. Trees are based on the proportion of shared alleles (Dps) and kinship coefficient (Dkf) genetic distances with 1 – (kf/ps) option in MICROSAT [65] produced identical topologies. Dps tree is shown here. Bootstrap values over 70 % are shown on the divergence node (Dps/Dkf). ID codes are shown in Table 1.
Mentions: Neighbor-joining analysis of individual clouded leopard genotypes based on two microsatellite genetic distance estimators (Dps & Dkf) produced concordant topologies; both trees support the species distinction among clouded leopards (Figure 3). Individuals from Borneo and Sumatra form a monophyletic clade with 100 % (Dps & Dkf) bootstrap support (BS) distinguishing them from mainland specimens and the outgroups. The microsatellite analysis lends further support to the phylogeographic subdivision observed in mtDNA analysis between Borneo and Sumatra individuals, however with lower bootstrap support values (Sumatra clade with 69 % Dps/61%Dkf BS, and Borneo clade with 50/46 % BS).

Bottom Line: We found strong support for the distinction between N. nebulosa and N. diardi based on three fragments of mtDNA (900 bp) and 18 microsatellites.Additionally, a significant population subdivision was apparent among N. diardi from Sumatra and Borneo based on mtDNA and microsatellite data.The reduced gene flow between Borneo and Sumatra might suggest the recognition of two subspecies of N. diardi.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Würzburg, Biocentre, Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology, 97074 Würzburg, Germany. a.wilting@gmx.de

ABSTRACT

Background: The clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is one of the least known cat species and depletion of their forested habitats puts it under heavy pressure. Recently reclassification of Bornean clouded leopards (N. nebulosa diardi) to species level (N.diardi) was suggested based on molecular and morphological evidence. Since the genetic results were based solely on three Bornean samples we re-evaluated this partition using additional samples of Bornean clouded leopards (N = 7) and we were also able to include specimens from Sumatra (N = 3), which were lacking in previous analysis.

Results: We found strong support for the distinction between N. nebulosa and N. diardi based on three fragments of mtDNA (900 bp) and 18 microsatellites. Forty-one fixed mitochondrial nucleotide differences and non-overlapping allele sizes in 8 of 18 microsatellite loci distinguished N. nebulosa and N. diardi. This is equivalent to the genetic divergence among recognized species in the genus Panthera. Sumatran clouded leopards clustered with specimens from Borneo, suggesting that Sumatran individuals also belong to N. diardi. Additionally, a significant population subdivision was apparent among N. diardi from Sumatra and Borneo based on mtDNA and microsatellite data.

Conclusion: Referring to their origin on two Sunda Islands we propose to give N. diardi the common name "Sundaland clouded leopard". The reduced gene flow between Borneo and Sumatra might suggest the recognition of two subspecies of N. diardi. Based on this reclassification of clouded leopards not only species, but also the populations on Borneo and Sumatra should be managed separately and a higher priority should be placed to protect the different populations from extinction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus