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Improving health and building human capital through an effective primary care system.

Lee A, Kiyu A, Milman HM, Jimenez J - J Urban Health (2007)

Bottom Line: This synergistic effect would help to strengthen human and social capital development.The model can then combine the efforts of upstream, midstream, and downstream approaches to improve population health and reduce health inequity.Otherwise, health would easily be jeopardized as a result of rapid urbanization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Health Education and Health Promotion, Department of Community and Family Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, School of Public Health, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong. alee@cuhk.edu.hk

ABSTRACT
To improve population health, one must put emphasis on reducing health inequities and enhancing health protection and disease prevention, and early diagnosis and treatment of diseases by tackling the determinants of health at the downstream, midstream, and upstream levels. There is strong theoretical and empirical evidence for the association between strong national primary care systems and improved health indicators. The setting approach to promote health such as healthy schools, healthy cities also aims to address the determinants of health and build the capacity of individuals, families, and communities to create strong human and social capitals. The notion of human and social capitals begins to offer explanations why certain communities are unable to achieve better health than other communities with similar demography. In this paper, a review of studies conducted in different countries illustrate how a well-developed primary health care system would reduce all causes of mortalities, improve health status, reduce hospitalization, and be cost saving despite a disparity in socioeconomic conditions. The intervention strategy recommended in this paper is developing a model of comprehensive primary health care system by joining up different settings integrating the efforts of different parties within and outside the health sector. Different components of primary health care team would then work more closely with individuals and families and different healthy settings. This synergistic effect would help to strengthen human and social capital development. The model can then combine the efforts of upstream, midstream, and downstream approaches to improve population health and reduce health inequity. Otherwise, health would easily be jeopardized as a result of rapid urbanization.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Mandala of health: a model of the human ecosystem.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig1: Mandala of health: a model of the human ecosystem.

Mentions: For health improvement of the population based on the model of human ecosystem by Hancock and Perkin (Figure 1), interventions need to act at and across different layers and different levels. Both primary health care and setting approaches address the determinants of health at both macro- and micro-level. By strengthening community capacity and leadership in primary care, the human capital can be further developed to meet the health challenges of this century.FIGURE 1


Improving health and building human capital through an effective primary care system.

Lee A, Kiyu A, Milman HM, Jimenez J - J Urban Health (2007)

Mandala of health: a model of the human ecosystem.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1891639&req=5

Fig1: Mandala of health: a model of the human ecosystem.
Mentions: For health improvement of the population based on the model of human ecosystem by Hancock and Perkin (Figure 1), interventions need to act at and across different layers and different levels. Both primary health care and setting approaches address the determinants of health at both macro- and micro-level. By strengthening community capacity and leadership in primary care, the human capital can be further developed to meet the health challenges of this century.FIGURE 1

Bottom Line: This synergistic effect would help to strengthen human and social capital development.The model can then combine the efforts of upstream, midstream, and downstream approaches to improve population health and reduce health inequity.Otherwise, health would easily be jeopardized as a result of rapid urbanization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Health Education and Health Promotion, Department of Community and Family Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, School of Public Health, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong. alee@cuhk.edu.hk

ABSTRACT
To improve population health, one must put emphasis on reducing health inequities and enhancing health protection and disease prevention, and early diagnosis and treatment of diseases by tackling the determinants of health at the downstream, midstream, and upstream levels. There is strong theoretical and empirical evidence for the association between strong national primary care systems and improved health indicators. The setting approach to promote health such as healthy schools, healthy cities also aims to address the determinants of health and build the capacity of individuals, families, and communities to create strong human and social capitals. The notion of human and social capitals begins to offer explanations why certain communities are unable to achieve better health than other communities with similar demography. In this paper, a review of studies conducted in different countries illustrate how a well-developed primary health care system would reduce all causes of mortalities, improve health status, reduce hospitalization, and be cost saving despite a disparity in socioeconomic conditions. The intervention strategy recommended in this paper is developing a model of comprehensive primary health care system by joining up different settings integrating the efforts of different parties within and outside the health sector. Different components of primary health care team would then work more closely with individuals and families and different healthy settings. This synergistic effect would help to strengthen human and social capital development. The model can then combine the efforts of upstream, midstream, and downstream approaches to improve population health and reduce health inequity. Otherwise, health would easily be jeopardized as a result of rapid urbanization.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus