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GATA-3 induces T helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine expression and chromatin remodeling in committed Th1 cells.

Lee HJ, Takemoto N, Kurata H, Kamogawa Y, Miyatake S, O'Garra A, Arai N - J. Exp. Med. (2000)

Bottom Line: Both zinc fingers, however, were required for IL-5 induction.A Th2-specific DNaseI-hypersensitive site of the IL-4 locus was detected in GATA-3-expressing Th1 cells.Thus, GATA-3 can change the phenotype of committed Th1 cells, previously considered to be irreversible.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Immunology, DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, California 94304-1104, USA.

ABSTRACT
Committed T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 effector cells, resulting from chronic antigenic stimulation in interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-4, are implicated in the pathology of autoimmune and allergic diseases. Committed Th1 cells cannot be induced to change their cytokine profiles in response to antigenic stimulation and Th2 cytokine-inducing conditions. Here, we report that ectopic expression of GATA-3 induced Th2-specific cytokine expression not only in developing Th1 cells but also in otherwise irreversibly committed Th1 cells and a Th1 clone, HDK1. Moreover, cAMP, an inhibitor of cytokine production by Th1 cells, markedly augmented Th2 cytokine production in GATA-3-expressing Th1 cells. Ectopic expression of GATA-3 in developing Th1 cells, but not in Th1 clone HDK1, induced endogenous GATA-3, suggesting an autoregulatory mechanism for maintenance of GATA-3 expression in Th2 cells. Structure-function analyses of GATA-3 revealed that the NH(2)-terminal transactivation domain and the COOH-terminal zinc finger domain of GATA-3 were critical, whereas the NH(2)-terminal zinc finger domain was dispensable for the induction of IL-4. Both zinc fingers, however, were required for IL-5 induction. A Th2-specific DNaseI-hypersensitive site of the IL-4 locus was detected in GATA-3-expressing Th1 cells. Thus, GATA-3 can change the phenotype of committed Th1 cells, previously considered to be irreversible.

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GATA-3 induces endogenous GATA-3 but not c-maf. RNase protection assay for GATA-3 and c-maf transcripts was performed using total cellular RNAs as described in Materials and Methods. The locations of protected bands for c-maf and for endogenous as well as introduced GATA-3 transcripts are indicated.
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Figure 3: GATA-3 induces endogenous GATA-3 but not c-maf. RNase protection assay for GATA-3 and c-maf transcripts was performed using total cellular RNAs as described in Materials and Methods. The locations of protected bands for c-maf and for endogenous as well as introduced GATA-3 transcripts are indicated.

Mentions: To ensure the expression of GATA-3 in cells infected with recombinant retrovirus, we performed RNase protection using a GATA-3–specific probe, which distinguishes the endogenous GATA-3 transcript from the retroviral one (Fig. 3, top and bottom bands, respectively). Endogenous GATA-3 transcripts were easily detected in 1 wk polarized Th2 cells (Fig. 3, lane 2) but not in Th1 cells (Fig. 3, lane 1) nor a Th1 clone, regardless of infection with control R-EGFP (Fig. 3, lanes 5–7). On the other hand, a smaller band, reflecting the retrovirus-derived GATA-3 transcript, was detected in both developing Th1 cells and the Th1 clone infected with R-GATA-3-EGFP (Fig. 3, lanes 4 and 8–10). Th1 cells infected with R-GATA-3-EGFP on days 1 and 2 after primary stimulation additionally expressed endogenous GATA-3 transcripts (Fig. 3, lane 4), indicating that ectopically expressed GATA-3 induces endogenous GATA-3 gene transcription in developing Th1 cells. In contrast, GATA-3 did not induce another Th2-specific transcription factor c-maf 15 in developing Th1 cells at the level of detectability in our assay (Fig. 3, lane 4). In the committed Th1 clone, GATA-3 did not induce endogenous GATA-3 gene transcription (Fig. 3, lanes 8–10), although it could induce Th2 cytokine expression in the same cells.


GATA-3 induces T helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine expression and chromatin remodeling in committed Th1 cells.

Lee HJ, Takemoto N, Kurata H, Kamogawa Y, Miyatake S, O'Garra A, Arai N - J. Exp. Med. (2000)

GATA-3 induces endogenous GATA-3 but not c-maf. RNase protection assay for GATA-3 and c-maf transcripts was performed using total cellular RNAs as described in Materials and Methods. The locations of protected bands for c-maf and for endogenous as well as introduced GATA-3 transcripts are indicated.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1887713&req=5

Figure 3: GATA-3 induces endogenous GATA-3 but not c-maf. RNase protection assay for GATA-3 and c-maf transcripts was performed using total cellular RNAs as described in Materials and Methods. The locations of protected bands for c-maf and for endogenous as well as introduced GATA-3 transcripts are indicated.
Mentions: To ensure the expression of GATA-3 in cells infected with recombinant retrovirus, we performed RNase protection using a GATA-3–specific probe, which distinguishes the endogenous GATA-3 transcript from the retroviral one (Fig. 3, top and bottom bands, respectively). Endogenous GATA-3 transcripts were easily detected in 1 wk polarized Th2 cells (Fig. 3, lane 2) but not in Th1 cells (Fig. 3, lane 1) nor a Th1 clone, regardless of infection with control R-EGFP (Fig. 3, lanes 5–7). On the other hand, a smaller band, reflecting the retrovirus-derived GATA-3 transcript, was detected in both developing Th1 cells and the Th1 clone infected with R-GATA-3-EGFP (Fig. 3, lanes 4 and 8–10). Th1 cells infected with R-GATA-3-EGFP on days 1 and 2 after primary stimulation additionally expressed endogenous GATA-3 transcripts (Fig. 3, lane 4), indicating that ectopically expressed GATA-3 induces endogenous GATA-3 gene transcription in developing Th1 cells. In contrast, GATA-3 did not induce another Th2-specific transcription factor c-maf 15 in developing Th1 cells at the level of detectability in our assay (Fig. 3, lane 4). In the committed Th1 clone, GATA-3 did not induce endogenous GATA-3 gene transcription (Fig. 3, lanes 8–10), although it could induce Th2 cytokine expression in the same cells.

Bottom Line: Both zinc fingers, however, were required for IL-5 induction.A Th2-specific DNaseI-hypersensitive site of the IL-4 locus was detected in GATA-3-expressing Th1 cells.Thus, GATA-3 can change the phenotype of committed Th1 cells, previously considered to be irreversible.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Immunology, DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, California 94304-1104, USA.

ABSTRACT
Committed T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 effector cells, resulting from chronic antigenic stimulation in interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-4, are implicated in the pathology of autoimmune and allergic diseases. Committed Th1 cells cannot be induced to change their cytokine profiles in response to antigenic stimulation and Th2 cytokine-inducing conditions. Here, we report that ectopic expression of GATA-3 induced Th2-specific cytokine expression not only in developing Th1 cells but also in otherwise irreversibly committed Th1 cells and a Th1 clone, HDK1. Moreover, cAMP, an inhibitor of cytokine production by Th1 cells, markedly augmented Th2 cytokine production in GATA-3-expressing Th1 cells. Ectopic expression of GATA-3 in developing Th1 cells, but not in Th1 clone HDK1, induced endogenous GATA-3, suggesting an autoregulatory mechanism for maintenance of GATA-3 expression in Th2 cells. Structure-function analyses of GATA-3 revealed that the NH(2)-terminal transactivation domain and the COOH-terminal zinc finger domain of GATA-3 were critical, whereas the NH(2)-terminal zinc finger domain was dispensable for the induction of IL-4. Both zinc fingers, however, were required for IL-5 induction. A Th2-specific DNaseI-hypersensitive site of the IL-4 locus was detected in GATA-3-expressing Th1 cells. Thus, GATA-3 can change the phenotype of committed Th1 cells, previously considered to be irreversible.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus