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Urmia Lake (Northwest Iran): a brief review.

Eimanifar A, Mohebbi F - Saline Syst. (2007)

Bottom Line: Urmia Lake, located in northwestern Iran, is an oligotrophic lake of thalassohaline origin with a total surface area between 4750 and 6100 km2 and a maximum depth of 16 m at an altitude of 1250 m.The lake is divided into north and south parts separated by a causeway in which a 1500-m gap provides little exchange of water between the two parts.Due to drought and increased demands for agricultural water in the lake's basin, the salinity of the lake has risen to more than 300 g/L during recent years, and large areas of the lake bed have been desiccated.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Iranian Artemia Research Center, P.O. Box: 57135-1367, Urmia, Iran. amineimanifar@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Lake Urmia (or Ormiyeh) is one of the largest hypersaline lakes in the world and the habitat of a unique bisexual Artemia species (A. urmiana). Despite this, and several other values of the lake, little literature on it has been published. The present paper is an attempt to provide a brief review on various aspects of the lake. Urmia Lake, located in northwestern Iran, is an oligotrophic lake of thalassohaline origin with a total surface area between 4750 and 6100 km2 and a maximum depth of 16 m at an altitude of 1250 m. The lake is divided into north and south parts separated by a causeway in which a 1500-m gap provides little exchange of water between the two parts. Due to drought and increased demands for agricultural water in the lake's basin, the salinity of the lake has risen to more than 300 g/L during recent years, and large areas of the lake bed have been desiccated. Therefore, management and conservation of this incomparable ecosystem should be considered to improve the current condition by fisheries research institutes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Annual variation of the surface elevation of south arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah (1992–2007). (Hydrograph from U.S. Geological Survey).
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Figure 2: Annual variation of the surface elevation of south arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah (1992–2007). (Hydrograph from U.S. Geological Survey).

Mentions: However, at present, the Great Salt Lake is not continuing its upward climb. The graph showed that Great Salt Lake elevation declined from 1992 to 1997 and then began an upward climb to 1999 (Fig. 2). The measurement of the level changes in Urmia lake by satellite showed an increase from 1992 to 1995 and decline from 1995 through 2003 (U.S. Geological Survey). A concomitant increase salinity (220–300 g/l) was observed during the years of declining elevation [32]. For the 2003–2004 period, favorable climatic changes lead to an increase in the elevation [32], but it has been declining since that time (U.S. Geological Survey). Aleshikh et al. [33] mapped the coastline changes for Urmia Lake using an innovative TM (Satellite imagery made up of 7 bands, with bands 1–5 and 7 being visible and near IR, and band 6 being thermal IR. The visible and near IR bands all have 30 m pixel size, with the thermal IR band having a pixel size of 120 m) and ETM+imagery (Satellite imagery is made up of 8 bands, with bands 1–5 and 7 being visible and near IR, band 6 being thermal IR, and band 8 being panchromatic. The visible and near IR bands all have 30 m pixel size, the thermal IR band has a pixel size of 60 m, and the panchromatic band has a pixel size of 15 m) method in 1989, 1998 and 2001. They concluded that the lake's small variations (0.2 m) from Jun-1989 to Aug-1998 are permanent, but that the great decrease in water depth from 1998 to 2001 (3 m), was not related to these permanent fluctuations, but to the lake's hydrologic budgets.


Urmia Lake (Northwest Iran): a brief review.

Eimanifar A, Mohebbi F - Saline Syst. (2007)

Annual variation of the surface elevation of south arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah (1992–2007). (Hydrograph from U.S. Geological Survey).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1884160&req=5

Figure 2: Annual variation of the surface elevation of south arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah (1992–2007). (Hydrograph from U.S. Geological Survey).
Mentions: However, at present, the Great Salt Lake is not continuing its upward climb. The graph showed that Great Salt Lake elevation declined from 1992 to 1997 and then began an upward climb to 1999 (Fig. 2). The measurement of the level changes in Urmia lake by satellite showed an increase from 1992 to 1995 and decline from 1995 through 2003 (U.S. Geological Survey). A concomitant increase salinity (220–300 g/l) was observed during the years of declining elevation [32]. For the 2003–2004 period, favorable climatic changes lead to an increase in the elevation [32], but it has been declining since that time (U.S. Geological Survey). Aleshikh et al. [33] mapped the coastline changes for Urmia Lake using an innovative TM (Satellite imagery made up of 7 bands, with bands 1–5 and 7 being visible and near IR, and band 6 being thermal IR. The visible and near IR bands all have 30 m pixel size, with the thermal IR band having a pixel size of 120 m) and ETM+imagery (Satellite imagery is made up of 8 bands, with bands 1–5 and 7 being visible and near IR, band 6 being thermal IR, and band 8 being panchromatic. The visible and near IR bands all have 30 m pixel size, the thermal IR band has a pixel size of 60 m, and the panchromatic band has a pixel size of 15 m) method in 1989, 1998 and 2001. They concluded that the lake's small variations (0.2 m) from Jun-1989 to Aug-1998 are permanent, but that the great decrease in water depth from 1998 to 2001 (3 m), was not related to these permanent fluctuations, but to the lake's hydrologic budgets.

Bottom Line: Urmia Lake, located in northwestern Iran, is an oligotrophic lake of thalassohaline origin with a total surface area between 4750 and 6100 km2 and a maximum depth of 16 m at an altitude of 1250 m.The lake is divided into north and south parts separated by a causeway in which a 1500-m gap provides little exchange of water between the two parts.Due to drought and increased demands for agricultural water in the lake's basin, the salinity of the lake has risen to more than 300 g/L during recent years, and large areas of the lake bed have been desiccated.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Iranian Artemia Research Center, P.O. Box: 57135-1367, Urmia, Iran. amineimanifar@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Lake Urmia (or Ormiyeh) is one of the largest hypersaline lakes in the world and the habitat of a unique bisexual Artemia species (A. urmiana). Despite this, and several other values of the lake, little literature on it has been published. The present paper is an attempt to provide a brief review on various aspects of the lake. Urmia Lake, located in northwestern Iran, is an oligotrophic lake of thalassohaline origin with a total surface area between 4750 and 6100 km2 and a maximum depth of 16 m at an altitude of 1250 m. The lake is divided into north and south parts separated by a causeway in which a 1500-m gap provides little exchange of water between the two parts. Due to drought and increased demands for agricultural water in the lake's basin, the salinity of the lake has risen to more than 300 g/L during recent years, and large areas of the lake bed have been desiccated. Therefore, management and conservation of this incomparable ecosystem should be considered to improve the current condition by fisheries research institutes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus