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Lower peripheral circulation in eumenorrheic young women with premenstrual symptoms.

Matsumoto T, Ushiroyama T, Tatsumi N - Biopsychosoc Med (2007)

Bottom Line: The oral temperature and urinary ovarian hormones adjusted for creatinine significantly increased in the late luteal phase in all subjects.We found that VOI decreased more significantly in the late luteal phase than in the follicular phase only in women with premenstrual discomfort although the symptoms were not unbearable enough to cause the disruption of daily activities.Although causes and consequences remain enigmatic, our data suggest that the peripheral circulation could alter in the luteal phase, which might be partly associated with premenstrual psychosomatic symptoms in eumenorrheic young women.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Science, International Buddhist University, 3-2-1 Gakuenmae, Habikino, Osaka, 583-8501, Japan. tamaki@shitennoji.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: A majority of women from all cultures and socioeconomic levels experience diverse psychosomatic and behavioral symptoms premenstrually, a phenomenon commonly termed premenstrual syndrome, although symptoms and discomfort levels vary from woman to woman. The underlying pathological mechanisms of premenstrual syndrome remain unknown; however, altered function or even slight disorder of the blood circulation system, which contributes to the orchestrations of the human internal environment, could cause bio-psychological changes leading to complaints and ultimately compromising a woman's overall health. The present study, therefore, investigates to what extent and how the menstrual cyclicity of peripheral circulation is associated with premenstrual symptomatology.

Methods: Twenty-one eumenorrheic young women participated in this study. All subjects were investigated during the follicular and late luteal phases. Cycle phase was determined by the onset of menstruation and oral temperature and was verified by concentrations of ovarian hormones, estrone, and pregnanediol in a urine sample taken early in the morning. Peripheral circulation was evaluated with the Astrim (Sysmex, Kobe), a portable non-invasive monitoring device using the principle of near-infrared spectroscopy, which calculates the venous oxygenation index (VOI) based on the ratio of light absorption of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, a proven reliable indicator of peripheral blood circulation. The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was applied to measure physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms accompanying the menstrual cycle of the subjects.

Results: The oral temperature and urinary ovarian hormones adjusted for creatinine significantly increased in the late luteal phase in all subjects. While 10 subjects experienced no symptoms during the menstrual cycle, 11 subjects had apparent physical and psychological discomfort in the late luteal phase. We found that VOI decreased more significantly in the late luteal phase than in the follicular phase only in women with premenstrual discomfort although the symptoms were not unbearable enough to cause the disruption of daily activities.

Conclusion: Several models have tried to explain the etiopathogenesis of premenstrual syndrome. Although causes and consequences remain enigmatic, our data suggest that the peripheral circulation could alter in the luteal phase, which might be partly associated with premenstrual psychosomatic symptoms in eumenorrheic young women.

No MeSH data available.


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Definition of premenstrual disorders described in Chapter 61 of Shang han lun – the oldest Chinese practical textbook of medicine – in the early third century.
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Figure 1: Definition of premenstrual disorders described in Chapter 61 of Shang han lun – the oldest Chinese practical textbook of medicine – in the early third century.

Mentions: Interestingly, physicians in the East have recognized premenstrual disorders for centuries. In the early third century, the oldest Chinese practical medical textbook, Shang han lun (Figure 1), describes premenstrual disorders: "Women appear to have unusual conditions in the premenstrual phase while experiencing various psychosomatic symptoms including lower abdominal bloating and discomforts, which might be caused by 'oketsu' (blood stagnation) syndrome. However, they get over the symptoms after bleeding." In addition, tokaku-joki-to (tao-he-cheng-qi-tang), a type of Kampo medicine for overcoming blood stagnation or stasis, was recommended to treat premenstrual discomfort [4].


Lower peripheral circulation in eumenorrheic young women with premenstrual symptoms.

Matsumoto T, Ushiroyama T, Tatsumi N - Biopsychosoc Med (2007)

Definition of premenstrual disorders described in Chapter 61 of Shang han lun – the oldest Chinese practical textbook of medicine – in the early third century.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1851706&req=5

Figure 1: Definition of premenstrual disorders described in Chapter 61 of Shang han lun – the oldest Chinese practical textbook of medicine – in the early third century.
Mentions: Interestingly, physicians in the East have recognized premenstrual disorders for centuries. In the early third century, the oldest Chinese practical medical textbook, Shang han lun (Figure 1), describes premenstrual disorders: "Women appear to have unusual conditions in the premenstrual phase while experiencing various psychosomatic symptoms including lower abdominal bloating and discomforts, which might be caused by 'oketsu' (blood stagnation) syndrome. However, they get over the symptoms after bleeding." In addition, tokaku-joki-to (tao-he-cheng-qi-tang), a type of Kampo medicine for overcoming blood stagnation or stasis, was recommended to treat premenstrual discomfort [4].

Bottom Line: The oral temperature and urinary ovarian hormones adjusted for creatinine significantly increased in the late luteal phase in all subjects.We found that VOI decreased more significantly in the late luteal phase than in the follicular phase only in women with premenstrual discomfort although the symptoms were not unbearable enough to cause the disruption of daily activities.Although causes and consequences remain enigmatic, our data suggest that the peripheral circulation could alter in the luteal phase, which might be partly associated with premenstrual psychosomatic symptoms in eumenorrheic young women.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Science, International Buddhist University, 3-2-1 Gakuenmae, Habikino, Osaka, 583-8501, Japan. tamaki@shitennoji.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: A majority of women from all cultures and socioeconomic levels experience diverse psychosomatic and behavioral symptoms premenstrually, a phenomenon commonly termed premenstrual syndrome, although symptoms and discomfort levels vary from woman to woman. The underlying pathological mechanisms of premenstrual syndrome remain unknown; however, altered function or even slight disorder of the blood circulation system, which contributes to the orchestrations of the human internal environment, could cause bio-psychological changes leading to complaints and ultimately compromising a woman's overall health. The present study, therefore, investigates to what extent and how the menstrual cyclicity of peripheral circulation is associated with premenstrual symptomatology.

Methods: Twenty-one eumenorrheic young women participated in this study. All subjects were investigated during the follicular and late luteal phases. Cycle phase was determined by the onset of menstruation and oral temperature and was verified by concentrations of ovarian hormones, estrone, and pregnanediol in a urine sample taken early in the morning. Peripheral circulation was evaluated with the Astrim (Sysmex, Kobe), a portable non-invasive monitoring device using the principle of near-infrared spectroscopy, which calculates the venous oxygenation index (VOI) based on the ratio of light absorption of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, a proven reliable indicator of peripheral blood circulation. The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was applied to measure physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms accompanying the menstrual cycle of the subjects.

Results: The oral temperature and urinary ovarian hormones adjusted for creatinine significantly increased in the late luteal phase in all subjects. While 10 subjects experienced no symptoms during the menstrual cycle, 11 subjects had apparent physical and psychological discomfort in the late luteal phase. We found that VOI decreased more significantly in the late luteal phase than in the follicular phase only in women with premenstrual discomfort although the symptoms were not unbearable enough to cause the disruption of daily activities.

Conclusion: Several models have tried to explain the etiopathogenesis of premenstrual syndrome. Although causes and consequences remain enigmatic, our data suggest that the peripheral circulation could alter in the luteal phase, which might be partly associated with premenstrual psychosomatic symptoms in eumenorrheic young women.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus