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Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations.

Kumar V, Reddy AN, Babu JP, Rao TN, Langstieh BT, Thangaraj K, Reddy AG, Singh L, Reddy BM - BMC Evol. Biol. (2007)

Bottom Line: Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia.The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442-132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor.Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Anthropology Group, Biological Anthropology Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Hubsiguda, Hyderabad, India. vikranttibriwal@yahoo.com <vikranttibriwal@yahoo.com>

ABSTRACT

Background: The Austro-Asiatic linguistic family, which is considered to be the oldest of all the families in India, has a substantial presence in Southeast Asia. However, the possibility of any genetic link among the linguistic sub-families of the Indian Austro-Asiatics on the one hand and between the Indian and the Southeast Asian Austro-Asiatics on the other has not been explored till now. Therefore, to trace the origin and historic expansion of Austro-Asiatic groups of India, we analysed Y-chromosome SNP and STR data of the 1222 individuals from 25 Indian populations, covering all the three branches of Austro-Asiatic tribes, viz. Mundari, Khasi-Khmuic and Mon-Khmer, along with the previously published data on 214 relevant populations from Asia and Oceania.

Results: Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia. However, maternal link based on mtDNA is not evident. The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442-132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor. Subsequently, in the process of expansion, the Mon-Khmer populations from Southeast Asia seem to have migrated and colonized Andaman and Nicobar Islands at a much later point of time.

Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

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The isofrequency maps portraying spatial distribution of Haplogroups in Asia and Oceania for O-M95 and O-M122 (data are from [14-16, 18-30]). For O-M95, Nicobarese samples were excluded. The dots indicate the populations and the regions from where it was sampled.
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Figure 5: The isofrequency maps portraying spatial distribution of Haplogroups in Asia and Oceania for O-M95 and O-M122 (data are from [14-16, 18-30]). For O-M95, Nicobarese samples were excluded. The dots indicate the populations and the regions from where it was sampled.

Mentions: Isofrequency maps were generated for all the haplogroups but only the relevant two maps pertaining to O-M95 and O-M122 are presented in Figure 5. The data of our study along with the comparative data on 214 other relevant populations suggest that the haplogroup O-M95 is ubiquitously found in Southeast Asia, while in India it is restricted to the regions where Austro-Asiatic populations are found. This strongly suggests that Austro-Asiatic populations of India are not only linguistically linked to Southeast Asian populations but also genetically associated. The present day distribution of Austro-Asiatic linguistic groups and the distribution of haplogroup O-M95 appear to be highly correlated (Table 5 and Fig. 5). For example, its average frequency is only 3.4% and 0.1% (Table 5), respectively, in northeast and Central Asia where no Austro-Asiatic population is found, whereas it is much higher in Southeast Asian Austro-Asiatics (38%) as well as in the neighboring non-Austro-Asiatics (14.7%). Further, this frequency is significantly much higher in Austro-Asiatics than in non-Austro-Asiatics (χ2 = 22.77; P < 0.001). There is also a decreasing gradient of O-M95 frequency as we move from India to Southeast Asia, although this trend is less apparent in the map because 7 of 45 groups from Southeast Asia show O-M95 frequency in the range of 50% to 75%. However, for six of those 7 populations the sample sizes are less than 20, some being very small. In any case, the average frequency of O-M95 in Indian Austro-Asiatic populations is much higher (54%) when compared (Table 5) to those of Southeast Asia, whether Austro-Asiatic (38%; χ2= 68.89; p < 0.001) or non-Austro-Asiatic (14.7%; χ2 = 330.68; p < 0.001). On the other hand, haplogroup O-M122 distribution in India is confined only to the Northeast India, as depicted in the map by a sharp boundary (Fig. 5), whereas it is equally prevalent in Northeast and Southeast Asia (Table 5). The spread of haplogroup H-M69 (Fig. S3 [see Additional file 1]) appears to be confined to the boundaries of the Indian subcontinent and, therefore, very strongly suggests its origin in the Indian subcontinent.


Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations.

Kumar V, Reddy AN, Babu JP, Rao TN, Langstieh BT, Thangaraj K, Reddy AG, Singh L, Reddy BM - BMC Evol. Biol. (2007)

The isofrequency maps portraying spatial distribution of Haplogroups in Asia and Oceania for O-M95 and O-M122 (data are from [14-16, 18-30]). For O-M95, Nicobarese samples were excluded. The dots indicate the populations and the regions from where it was sampled.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1851701&req=5

Figure 5: The isofrequency maps portraying spatial distribution of Haplogroups in Asia and Oceania for O-M95 and O-M122 (data are from [14-16, 18-30]). For O-M95, Nicobarese samples were excluded. The dots indicate the populations and the regions from where it was sampled.
Mentions: Isofrequency maps were generated for all the haplogroups but only the relevant two maps pertaining to O-M95 and O-M122 are presented in Figure 5. The data of our study along with the comparative data on 214 other relevant populations suggest that the haplogroup O-M95 is ubiquitously found in Southeast Asia, while in India it is restricted to the regions where Austro-Asiatic populations are found. This strongly suggests that Austro-Asiatic populations of India are not only linguistically linked to Southeast Asian populations but also genetically associated. The present day distribution of Austro-Asiatic linguistic groups and the distribution of haplogroup O-M95 appear to be highly correlated (Table 5 and Fig. 5). For example, its average frequency is only 3.4% and 0.1% (Table 5), respectively, in northeast and Central Asia where no Austro-Asiatic population is found, whereas it is much higher in Southeast Asian Austro-Asiatics (38%) as well as in the neighboring non-Austro-Asiatics (14.7%). Further, this frequency is significantly much higher in Austro-Asiatics than in non-Austro-Asiatics (χ2 = 22.77; P < 0.001). There is also a decreasing gradient of O-M95 frequency as we move from India to Southeast Asia, although this trend is less apparent in the map because 7 of 45 groups from Southeast Asia show O-M95 frequency in the range of 50% to 75%. However, for six of those 7 populations the sample sizes are less than 20, some being very small. In any case, the average frequency of O-M95 in Indian Austro-Asiatic populations is much higher (54%) when compared (Table 5) to those of Southeast Asia, whether Austro-Asiatic (38%; χ2= 68.89; p < 0.001) or non-Austro-Asiatic (14.7%; χ2 = 330.68; p < 0.001). On the other hand, haplogroup O-M122 distribution in India is confined only to the Northeast India, as depicted in the map by a sharp boundary (Fig. 5), whereas it is equally prevalent in Northeast and Southeast Asia (Table 5). The spread of haplogroup H-M69 (Fig. S3 [see Additional file 1]) appears to be confined to the boundaries of the Indian subcontinent and, therefore, very strongly suggests its origin in the Indian subcontinent.

Bottom Line: Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia.The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442-132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor.Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Anthropology Group, Biological Anthropology Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Hubsiguda, Hyderabad, India. vikranttibriwal@yahoo.com <vikranttibriwal@yahoo.com>

ABSTRACT

Background: The Austro-Asiatic linguistic family, which is considered to be the oldest of all the families in India, has a substantial presence in Southeast Asia. However, the possibility of any genetic link among the linguistic sub-families of the Indian Austro-Asiatics on the one hand and between the Indian and the Southeast Asian Austro-Asiatics on the other has not been explored till now. Therefore, to trace the origin and historic expansion of Austro-Asiatic groups of India, we analysed Y-chromosome SNP and STR data of the 1222 individuals from 25 Indian populations, covering all the three branches of Austro-Asiatic tribes, viz. Mundari, Khasi-Khmuic and Mon-Khmer, along with the previously published data on 214 relevant populations from Asia and Oceania.

Results: Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia. However, maternal link based on mtDNA is not evident. The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442-132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor. Subsequently, in the process of expansion, the Mon-Khmer populations from Southeast Asia seem to have migrated and colonized Andaman and Nicobar Islands at a much later point of time.

Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus