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Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations.

Kumar V, Reddy AN, Babu JP, Rao TN, Langstieh BT, Thangaraj K, Reddy AG, Singh L, Reddy BM - BMC Evol. Biol. (2007)

Bottom Line: Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia.The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442-132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor.Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Anthropology Group, Biological Anthropology Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Hubsiguda, Hyderabad, India. vikranttibriwal@yahoo.com <vikranttibriwal@yahoo.com>

ABSTRACT

Background: The Austro-Asiatic linguistic family, which is considered to be the oldest of all the families in India, has a substantial presence in Southeast Asia. However, the possibility of any genetic link among the linguistic sub-families of the Indian Austro-Asiatics on the one hand and between the Indian and the Southeast Asian Austro-Asiatics on the other has not been explored till now. Therefore, to trace the origin and historic expansion of Austro-Asiatic groups of India, we analysed Y-chromosome SNP and STR data of the 1222 individuals from 25 Indian populations, covering all the three branches of Austro-Asiatic tribes, viz. Mundari, Khasi-Khmuic and Mon-Khmer, along with the previously published data on 214 relevant populations from Asia and Oceania.

Results: Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia. However, maternal link based on mtDNA is not evident. The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442-132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor. Subsequently, in the process of expansion, the Mon-Khmer populations from Southeast Asia seem to have migrated and colonized Andaman and Nicobar Islands at a much later point of time.

Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

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Median-Joining network of Y-STR haplotypes of O-M95 haplogroup. Samples with data on some STRs missing were excluded and the remaining 564 chromosomes were analysed. Circles represent haplotypes with area proportional to their frequency. Microsatellite mutations are represented by black lines.
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Figure 4: Median-Joining network of Y-STR haplotypes of O-M95 haplogroup. Samples with data on some STRs missing were excluded and the remaining 564 chromosomes were analysed. Circles represent haplotypes with area proportional to their frequency. Microsatellite mutations are represented by black lines.

Mentions: The Median Joining (M-J) network based on the 16 Y-STRs of the O-M95 samples (Fig. 4) depicts two broad and distinct clades, one representing Mundari groups and the other Khasi and Nicobarese populations. Although the Nicobarese clade is a part of the Khasi clade, it consists of two distinct branches suggesting a separate identity. As expected, due to the considerable degree of admixture, the M-J network shows that the Garo samples form a part of Khasi subclade, not a separate clade. Further, the M-J network constructed separately for the sub-haplogroups of O-M122 suggests that neither in the case of O-M134* (Fig. S2 [see Additional file 1]) nor in the case of O-M133* (results not shown) the Garo and Khasi samples form distinct clades, suggesting a distinct possibility of gene flow between them.


Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations.

Kumar V, Reddy AN, Babu JP, Rao TN, Langstieh BT, Thangaraj K, Reddy AG, Singh L, Reddy BM - BMC Evol. Biol. (2007)

Median-Joining network of Y-STR haplotypes of O-M95 haplogroup. Samples with data on some STRs missing were excluded and the remaining 564 chromosomes were analysed. Circles represent haplotypes with area proportional to their frequency. Microsatellite mutations are represented by black lines.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1851701&req=5

Figure 4: Median-Joining network of Y-STR haplotypes of O-M95 haplogroup. Samples with data on some STRs missing were excluded and the remaining 564 chromosomes were analysed. Circles represent haplotypes with area proportional to their frequency. Microsatellite mutations are represented by black lines.
Mentions: The Median Joining (M-J) network based on the 16 Y-STRs of the O-M95 samples (Fig. 4) depicts two broad and distinct clades, one representing Mundari groups and the other Khasi and Nicobarese populations. Although the Nicobarese clade is a part of the Khasi clade, it consists of two distinct branches suggesting a separate identity. As expected, due to the considerable degree of admixture, the M-J network shows that the Garo samples form a part of Khasi subclade, not a separate clade. Further, the M-J network constructed separately for the sub-haplogroups of O-M122 suggests that neither in the case of O-M134* (Fig. S2 [see Additional file 1]) nor in the case of O-M133* (results not shown) the Garo and Khasi samples form distinct clades, suggesting a distinct possibility of gene flow between them.

Bottom Line: Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia.The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442-132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor.Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Anthropology Group, Biological Anthropology Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Hubsiguda, Hyderabad, India. vikranttibriwal@yahoo.com <vikranttibriwal@yahoo.com>

ABSTRACT

Background: The Austro-Asiatic linguistic family, which is considered to be the oldest of all the families in India, has a substantial presence in Southeast Asia. However, the possibility of any genetic link among the linguistic sub-families of the Indian Austro-Asiatics on the one hand and between the Indian and the Southeast Asian Austro-Asiatics on the other has not been explored till now. Therefore, to trace the origin and historic expansion of Austro-Asiatic groups of India, we analysed Y-chromosome SNP and STR data of the 1222 individuals from 25 Indian populations, covering all the three branches of Austro-Asiatic tribes, viz. Mundari, Khasi-Khmuic and Mon-Khmer, along with the previously published data on 214 relevant populations from Asia and Oceania.

Results: Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia. However, maternal link based on mtDNA is not evident. The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442-132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor. Subsequently, in the process of expansion, the Mon-Khmer populations from Southeast Asia seem to have migrated and colonized Andaman and Nicobar Islands at a much later point of time.

Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

Show MeSH