Limits...
Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations.

Kumar V, Reddy AN, Babu JP, Rao TN, Langstieh BT, Thangaraj K, Reddy AG, Singh L, Reddy BM - BMC Evol. Biol. (2007)

Bottom Line: Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia.The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442-132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor.Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Anthropology Group, Biological Anthropology Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Hubsiguda, Hyderabad, India. vikranttibriwal@yahoo.com <vikranttibriwal@yahoo.com>

ABSTRACT

Background: The Austro-Asiatic linguistic family, which is considered to be the oldest of all the families in India, has a substantial presence in Southeast Asia. However, the possibility of any genetic link among the linguistic sub-families of the Indian Austro-Asiatics on the one hand and between the Indian and the Southeast Asian Austro-Asiatics on the other has not been explored till now. Therefore, to trace the origin and historic expansion of Austro-Asiatic groups of India, we analysed Y-chromosome SNP and STR data of the 1222 individuals from 25 Indian populations, covering all the three branches of Austro-Asiatic tribes, viz. Mundari, Khasi-Khmuic and Mon-Khmer, along with the previously published data on 214 relevant populations from Asia and Oceania.

Results: Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia. However, maternal link based on mtDNA is not evident. The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442-132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor. Subsequently, in the process of expansion, the Mon-Khmer populations from Southeast Asia seem to have migrated and colonized Andaman and Nicobar Islands at a much later point of time.

Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

Show MeSH
Rooted maximum-parsimony tree of haplogroups defined by binary markers along with their frequency in different groups.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1851701&req=5

Figure 2: Rooted maximum-parsimony tree of haplogroups defined by binary markers along with their frequency in different groups.

Mentions: The population-wise distribution of Y-haplogroup frequency and diversity along with haplotype diversity based on 16 Y-STR is furnished in Table 2. Overall, the haplotype diversity is high (98.87%) and ranges from 95.26% in Pando to 100% in Khasi, Garo, Paharia, Nagesia and Birijia. Out of the 13 potential haplogroups defined by the binary markers typed in the present study (Fig. 2) nine haplogroups were found among these populations. The average frequency of haplogroup O-M95 is highest (52%) followed by H-M69 (26%). Among the three sub-families of Austro-Asiatics, on an average, 55% of Mundari, 41% of Khasi-Khmuic from Northeast India and all the 11 Nicobarese samples belong to O-M95. To know if the unclassified O-M95 samples have sub-linegaes, we also typed downstream M88 binary marker but none showed the presence of O-M88 haplogroups. Except Khasi (29%) and 1 sample of Korku (2%), none of the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations shows the presence of haplogroup O-M122. Further, the Garo tribe shows haplogroup O-M122 as most common (55%) followed by O-M95 (18%). Since Austro-Asiatic Khasi and Tibeto-Burman Garo live in close proximity in Meghalaya and are known to have frequent marital interactions [11,12], we further typed all the samples of haplogroup O-M122 from Garo and Khasi populations to see if O-M122 among the Khasis is not due to admixture with the Garo. We found only 3 out of the 8 haplogroups defined by the binary markers used in this study (Fig. 3) i.e. O-M133*, O-M134* and O-M122*. The frequency of O-M134* was highest in both Khasi (56%) and Garo (67%) followed by O-M133*. Three each of Khasi and Garo out of 27 and 18 O-M122 samples, respectively, remained in the undefined clade O-M122*. Thus the Khasi and Garo show homogeneous distribution of the sub-lineages of O-M122 (χ2 = 1.597; p = 0.45).


Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations.

Kumar V, Reddy AN, Babu JP, Rao TN, Langstieh BT, Thangaraj K, Reddy AG, Singh L, Reddy BM - BMC Evol. Biol. (2007)

Rooted maximum-parsimony tree of haplogroups defined by binary markers along with their frequency in different groups.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1851701&req=5

Figure 2: Rooted maximum-parsimony tree of haplogroups defined by binary markers along with their frequency in different groups.
Mentions: The population-wise distribution of Y-haplogroup frequency and diversity along with haplotype diversity based on 16 Y-STR is furnished in Table 2. Overall, the haplotype diversity is high (98.87%) and ranges from 95.26% in Pando to 100% in Khasi, Garo, Paharia, Nagesia and Birijia. Out of the 13 potential haplogroups defined by the binary markers typed in the present study (Fig. 2) nine haplogroups were found among these populations. The average frequency of haplogroup O-M95 is highest (52%) followed by H-M69 (26%). Among the three sub-families of Austro-Asiatics, on an average, 55% of Mundari, 41% of Khasi-Khmuic from Northeast India and all the 11 Nicobarese samples belong to O-M95. To know if the unclassified O-M95 samples have sub-linegaes, we also typed downstream M88 binary marker but none showed the presence of O-M88 haplogroups. Except Khasi (29%) and 1 sample of Korku (2%), none of the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations shows the presence of haplogroup O-M122. Further, the Garo tribe shows haplogroup O-M122 as most common (55%) followed by O-M95 (18%). Since Austro-Asiatic Khasi and Tibeto-Burman Garo live in close proximity in Meghalaya and are known to have frequent marital interactions [11,12], we further typed all the samples of haplogroup O-M122 from Garo and Khasi populations to see if O-M122 among the Khasis is not due to admixture with the Garo. We found only 3 out of the 8 haplogroups defined by the binary markers used in this study (Fig. 3) i.e. O-M133*, O-M134* and O-M122*. The frequency of O-M134* was highest in both Khasi (56%) and Garo (67%) followed by O-M133*. Three each of Khasi and Garo out of 27 and 18 O-M122 samples, respectively, remained in the undefined clade O-M122*. Thus the Khasi and Garo show homogeneous distribution of the sub-lineages of O-M122 (χ2 = 1.597; p = 0.45).

Bottom Line: Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia.The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442-132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor.Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Anthropology Group, Biological Anthropology Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Hubsiguda, Hyderabad, India. vikranttibriwal@yahoo.com <vikranttibriwal@yahoo.com>

ABSTRACT

Background: The Austro-Asiatic linguistic family, which is considered to be the oldest of all the families in India, has a substantial presence in Southeast Asia. However, the possibility of any genetic link among the linguistic sub-families of the Indian Austro-Asiatics on the one hand and between the Indian and the Southeast Asian Austro-Asiatics on the other has not been explored till now. Therefore, to trace the origin and historic expansion of Austro-Asiatic groups of India, we analysed Y-chromosome SNP and STR data of the 1222 individuals from 25 Indian populations, covering all the three branches of Austro-Asiatic tribes, viz. Mundari, Khasi-Khmuic and Mon-Khmer, along with the previously published data on 214 relevant populations from Asia and Oceania.

Results: Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia. However, maternal link based on mtDNA is not evident. The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442-132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor. Subsequently, in the process of expansion, the Mon-Khmer populations from Southeast Asia seem to have migrated and colonized Andaman and Nicobar Islands at a much later point of time.

Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

Show MeSH