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Techniques for assessing knee joint pain in arthritis.

Neugebauer V, Han JS, Adwanikar H, Fu Y, Ji G - Mol Pain (2007)

Bottom Line: The assessment of pain is of critical importance for mechanistic studies as well as for the validation of drug targets.They include measurements of the knee extension angle struggle threshold, hind limb withdrawal reflex threshold of knee compression force, and vocalizations in response to stimulation of the knee.A discussion of pain assessment in humans with arthritis pain conditions concludes this review.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience & Cell Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-1069, USA. voneugeb@utmb.edu

ABSTRACT
The assessment of pain is of critical importance for mechanistic studies as well as for the validation of drug targets. This review will focus on knee joint pain associated with arthritis. Different animal models have been developed for the study of knee joint arthritis. Behavioral tests in animal models of knee joint arthritis typically measure knee joint pain rather indirectly. In recent years, however, progress has been made in the development of tests that actually evaluate the sensitivity of the knee joint in arthritis models. They include measurements of the knee extension angle struggle threshold, hind limb withdrawal reflex threshold of knee compression force, and vocalizations in response to stimulation of the knee. A discussion of pain assessment in humans with arthritis pain conditions concludes this review.

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Time course of the changes of three outcome measures in rats with a kaolin/carrageenan (K/C)-induced arthritis. (A) Circumference of the knee before and after K/C injection. (B) Angle at which the knee could be extended before eliciting struggling behavior in the rat. (C) Vocalization threshold of the compression force, which was applied to the knee. Post-injection time is expressed as hours (h) or days (d) after K/C injection. Pre-injection control was taken one day before the injection (-1 d). Asterisks indicate values significantly different from the pre-injection control value by one-way ANOVA followed by the Dunnett's posthoc test (n = 10). Symbols and error bars represent mean ± SE. Reprinted from [33], Copyright 2002, with permission from Elsevier.
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Figure 2: Time course of the changes of three outcome measures in rats with a kaolin/carrageenan (K/C)-induced arthritis. (A) Circumference of the knee before and after K/C injection. (B) Angle at which the knee could be extended before eliciting struggling behavior in the rat. (C) Vocalization threshold of the compression force, which was applied to the knee. Post-injection time is expressed as hours (h) or days (d) after K/C injection. Pre-injection control was taken one day before the injection (-1 d). Asterisks indicate values significantly different from the pre-injection control value by one-way ANOVA followed by the Dunnett's posthoc test (n = 10). Symbols and error bars represent mean ± SE. Reprinted from [33], Copyright 2002, with permission from Elsevier.

Mentions: Reduced range of motion and mechanical sensitivity of the arthritic knee have been assessed by measuring the struggle threshold of the knee extension angle [33,35]. In this quantitative test the tibia is extended until the rat shows struggling behavior, while the femur is held in position. The extension distance that the heel travels during movement is measured to calculate the extension angle by a trigonometric function that uses the length of the tibia and extension distance. In rats with knee joint arthritis induced by K/C [33] or CFA [33,35] the struggle threshold angle of the extension of the arthritic knee is decreased compared to the contralateral knee for nearly two weeks in the K/C model and for 2–3 weeks in the CFA model. Figure 2 shows the time course of decreased struggle threshold in the K/C arthritis model.


Techniques for assessing knee joint pain in arthritis.

Neugebauer V, Han JS, Adwanikar H, Fu Y, Ji G - Mol Pain (2007)

Time course of the changes of three outcome measures in rats with a kaolin/carrageenan (K/C)-induced arthritis. (A) Circumference of the knee before and after K/C injection. (B) Angle at which the knee could be extended before eliciting struggling behavior in the rat. (C) Vocalization threshold of the compression force, which was applied to the knee. Post-injection time is expressed as hours (h) or days (d) after K/C injection. Pre-injection control was taken one day before the injection (-1 d). Asterisks indicate values significantly different from the pre-injection control value by one-way ANOVA followed by the Dunnett's posthoc test (n = 10). Symbols and error bars represent mean ± SE. Reprinted from [33], Copyright 2002, with permission from Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1851005&req=5

Figure 2: Time course of the changes of three outcome measures in rats with a kaolin/carrageenan (K/C)-induced arthritis. (A) Circumference of the knee before and after K/C injection. (B) Angle at which the knee could be extended before eliciting struggling behavior in the rat. (C) Vocalization threshold of the compression force, which was applied to the knee. Post-injection time is expressed as hours (h) or days (d) after K/C injection. Pre-injection control was taken one day before the injection (-1 d). Asterisks indicate values significantly different from the pre-injection control value by one-way ANOVA followed by the Dunnett's posthoc test (n = 10). Symbols and error bars represent mean ± SE. Reprinted from [33], Copyright 2002, with permission from Elsevier.
Mentions: Reduced range of motion and mechanical sensitivity of the arthritic knee have been assessed by measuring the struggle threshold of the knee extension angle [33,35]. In this quantitative test the tibia is extended until the rat shows struggling behavior, while the femur is held in position. The extension distance that the heel travels during movement is measured to calculate the extension angle by a trigonometric function that uses the length of the tibia and extension distance. In rats with knee joint arthritis induced by K/C [33] or CFA [33,35] the struggle threshold angle of the extension of the arthritic knee is decreased compared to the contralateral knee for nearly two weeks in the K/C model and for 2–3 weeks in the CFA model. Figure 2 shows the time course of decreased struggle threshold in the K/C arthritis model.

Bottom Line: The assessment of pain is of critical importance for mechanistic studies as well as for the validation of drug targets.They include measurements of the knee extension angle struggle threshold, hind limb withdrawal reflex threshold of knee compression force, and vocalizations in response to stimulation of the knee.A discussion of pain assessment in humans with arthritis pain conditions concludes this review.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience & Cell Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-1069, USA. voneugeb@utmb.edu

ABSTRACT
The assessment of pain is of critical importance for mechanistic studies as well as for the validation of drug targets. This review will focus on knee joint pain associated with arthritis. Different animal models have been developed for the study of knee joint arthritis. Behavioral tests in animal models of knee joint arthritis typically measure knee joint pain rather indirectly. In recent years, however, progress has been made in the development of tests that actually evaluate the sensitivity of the knee joint in arthritis models. They include measurements of the knee extension angle struggle threshold, hind limb withdrawal reflex threshold of knee compression force, and vocalizations in response to stimulation of the knee. A discussion of pain assessment in humans with arthritis pain conditions concludes this review.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus