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Characterization of gene expression on genomic segment 7 of infectious salmon anaemia virus.

Kibenge FS, Xu H, Kibenge MJ, Qian B, Joseph T - Virol. J. (2007)

Bottom Line: Vaccination of farmed Atlantic salmon with the 32-kDa protein resulted in a higher survival rate than what was attainable with the HE protein, albeit a moderate protection against the low ISAV challenge.The 18-kDa (7-ORF1/2) protein is identified as the putative ISAV nuclear export protein based on the presence of nuclear export signals.The function of the 9.5-kDa (7-ORF1/3) protein is not presently known.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, P.E.I., Canada. kibenge@upei.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV), an important pathogen of fish that causes disease accompanied by high mortality in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon, is the only species in the genus Isavirus, one of the five genera of the Orthomyxoviridae family. The Isavirus genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA species, and the virions have two surface glycoproteins; haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein encoded on segment 6 and fusion (F) protein encoded on segment 5. Based on the initial demonstration of two 5'-coterminal mRNA transcripts by RT-PCR, ISAV genomic segment 7 was suggested to share a similar coding strategy with segment 7 of influenza A virus, encoding two proteins. However, there appears to be confusion as to the protein sizes predicted from the two open reading frames (ORFs) of ISAV segment 7 which has in turn led to confusion of the predicted protein functions. The primary goal of the present work was to clone and express these two ORFs in order to assess whether the predicted protein sizes match those of the expressed proteins so as to clarify the coding assignments, and thereby identify any additional structural proteins of ISAV.

Results: In the present study we show that ISAV segment 7 encodes 3 proteins with estimated molecular masses of 32, 18, and 9.5 kDa. The 18-kDa and 9.5-kDa products are based on removal of an intron each from the primary transcript (7-ORF1) so that the translation continues in the +2 and +3 reading frames, respectively. The segment 7-ORF1/3 product is variably truncated in the sequence of ISAV isolates of the European genotype. All three proteins are recognized by rabbit antiserum against the 32-kDa product of the primary transcript, as they all share the N-terminal 22 amino acids. This antiserum detected a single 35-kDa protein in Western blots of purified virus, and immunoprecipitated a 32-kDa protein in ISAV-infected TO cells. Immunofluorescence staining of infected cells with the same antiserum revealed the protein(s) to be localized in the cytoplasm. Vaccination of farmed Atlantic salmon with the 32-kDa protein resulted in a higher survival rate than what was attainable with the HE protein, albeit a moderate protection against the low ISAV challenge.

Conclusion: Collectively, our observations suggest that the product of ISAV segment 7 primary transcript (7-ORF1) is a structural protein. The 18-kDa (7-ORF1/2) protein is identified as the putative ISAV nuclear export protein based on the presence of nuclear export signals. The function of the 9.5-kDa (7-ORF1/3) protein is not presently known.

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Analysis of purified ISAV and GST proteins in Western blots. The prestained protein standards (Invitrogen Life Sciences) are drawn in on the left while corresponding molecular masses of proteins are indicated on the right. (A) Coomassie blue-stained gel of the proteins. Lane M contains the prestained protein standards. Lanes 1 to 3 contain purified ISAV, GST-7ORF1 fusion protein inclusion bodies, and GST protein, respectively. (B) Western blots reacted with rabbit antiserum to whole ISAV. Lanes 1 and 2 contain purified ISAV and GST protein, respectively. (C) Western blots reacted with rabbit antiserum to GST-7ORF1 fusion protein. Lanes 1 and 2 contain purified ISAV and GST protein, respectively.
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Figure 3: Analysis of purified ISAV and GST proteins in Western blots. The prestained protein standards (Invitrogen Life Sciences) are drawn in on the left while corresponding molecular masses of proteins are indicated on the right. (A) Coomassie blue-stained gel of the proteins. Lane M contains the prestained protein standards. Lanes 1 to 3 contain purified ISAV, GST-7ORF1 fusion protein inclusion bodies, and GST protein, respectively. (B) Western blots reacted with rabbit antiserum to whole ISAV. Lanes 1 and 2 contain purified ISAV and GST protein, respectively. (C) Western blots reacted with rabbit antiserum to GST-7ORF1 fusion protein. Lanes 1 and 2 contain purified ISAV and GST protein, respectively.

Mentions: In order to more specifically characterize the segment 7 ORF 1 protein, a GST-fusion construct of segment 7 ORF1 (designated GST-7 ORF1) was expressed in E. coli for purposes of purifying it and using it to immunize a rabbit for preparation of antiserum, and for use in fish vaccination experiments. Expression in E. coli resulted in production of the GST-fusion protein in insoluble inclusion bodies despite the reduction of the incubation temperature to 15°C after IPTG (isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside) induction of bacterial cultures. Prior to use in the rabbit immunization and the fish vaccination experiments, the inclusion body fraction was extracted three more times with the lysis buffer, and was then resuspended in Arginine buffer. This buffer did not solubilize the inclusion bodies but prevented aggregation, allowing the inclusion bodies to remain in suspension for liquid handling. Both the rabbit polyclonal antiserum prepared against the GST-7 ORF1 fusion protein and the rabbit antiserum against whole purified ISAV were applied separately to Western blots of purified ISAV, GST-7ORF1, and GST protein alone. Figure 3A shows a Coomassie blue-stained gel of these samples. The rabbit antiserum to whole ISAV was specific for the purified virus (Fig. 3B, lane 1) and did not react with the GST protein (Fig. 3B, lane 2). The rabbit antiserum to GST-7ORF1 fusion protein reacted specifically with a single 35-kDa viral protein in Western blots of purified virus (Fig. 3C, lane 1), confirming that segment 7 ORF1 encodes a structural protein of ISAV. This antiserum also reacted with the GST protein (Fig. 3C, lane 2).


Characterization of gene expression on genomic segment 7 of infectious salmon anaemia virus.

Kibenge FS, Xu H, Kibenge MJ, Qian B, Joseph T - Virol. J. (2007)

Analysis of purified ISAV and GST proteins in Western blots. The prestained protein standards (Invitrogen Life Sciences) are drawn in on the left while corresponding molecular masses of proteins are indicated on the right. (A) Coomassie blue-stained gel of the proteins. Lane M contains the prestained protein standards. Lanes 1 to 3 contain purified ISAV, GST-7ORF1 fusion protein inclusion bodies, and GST protein, respectively. (B) Western blots reacted with rabbit antiserum to whole ISAV. Lanes 1 and 2 contain purified ISAV and GST protein, respectively. (C) Western blots reacted with rabbit antiserum to GST-7ORF1 fusion protein. Lanes 1 and 2 contain purified ISAV and GST protein, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1851003&req=5

Figure 3: Analysis of purified ISAV and GST proteins in Western blots. The prestained protein standards (Invitrogen Life Sciences) are drawn in on the left while corresponding molecular masses of proteins are indicated on the right. (A) Coomassie blue-stained gel of the proteins. Lane M contains the prestained protein standards. Lanes 1 to 3 contain purified ISAV, GST-7ORF1 fusion protein inclusion bodies, and GST protein, respectively. (B) Western blots reacted with rabbit antiserum to whole ISAV. Lanes 1 and 2 contain purified ISAV and GST protein, respectively. (C) Western blots reacted with rabbit antiserum to GST-7ORF1 fusion protein. Lanes 1 and 2 contain purified ISAV and GST protein, respectively.
Mentions: In order to more specifically characterize the segment 7 ORF 1 protein, a GST-fusion construct of segment 7 ORF1 (designated GST-7 ORF1) was expressed in E. coli for purposes of purifying it and using it to immunize a rabbit for preparation of antiserum, and for use in fish vaccination experiments. Expression in E. coli resulted in production of the GST-fusion protein in insoluble inclusion bodies despite the reduction of the incubation temperature to 15°C after IPTG (isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside) induction of bacterial cultures. Prior to use in the rabbit immunization and the fish vaccination experiments, the inclusion body fraction was extracted three more times with the lysis buffer, and was then resuspended in Arginine buffer. This buffer did not solubilize the inclusion bodies but prevented aggregation, allowing the inclusion bodies to remain in suspension for liquid handling. Both the rabbit polyclonal antiserum prepared against the GST-7 ORF1 fusion protein and the rabbit antiserum against whole purified ISAV were applied separately to Western blots of purified ISAV, GST-7ORF1, and GST protein alone. Figure 3A shows a Coomassie blue-stained gel of these samples. The rabbit antiserum to whole ISAV was specific for the purified virus (Fig. 3B, lane 1) and did not react with the GST protein (Fig. 3B, lane 2). The rabbit antiserum to GST-7ORF1 fusion protein reacted specifically with a single 35-kDa viral protein in Western blots of purified virus (Fig. 3C, lane 1), confirming that segment 7 ORF1 encodes a structural protein of ISAV. This antiserum also reacted with the GST protein (Fig. 3C, lane 2).

Bottom Line: Vaccination of farmed Atlantic salmon with the 32-kDa protein resulted in a higher survival rate than what was attainable with the HE protein, albeit a moderate protection against the low ISAV challenge.The 18-kDa (7-ORF1/2) protein is identified as the putative ISAV nuclear export protein based on the presence of nuclear export signals.The function of the 9.5-kDa (7-ORF1/3) protein is not presently known.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, P.E.I., Canada. kibenge@upei.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV), an important pathogen of fish that causes disease accompanied by high mortality in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon, is the only species in the genus Isavirus, one of the five genera of the Orthomyxoviridae family. The Isavirus genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA species, and the virions have two surface glycoproteins; haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein encoded on segment 6 and fusion (F) protein encoded on segment 5. Based on the initial demonstration of two 5'-coterminal mRNA transcripts by RT-PCR, ISAV genomic segment 7 was suggested to share a similar coding strategy with segment 7 of influenza A virus, encoding two proteins. However, there appears to be confusion as to the protein sizes predicted from the two open reading frames (ORFs) of ISAV segment 7 which has in turn led to confusion of the predicted protein functions. The primary goal of the present work was to clone and express these two ORFs in order to assess whether the predicted protein sizes match those of the expressed proteins so as to clarify the coding assignments, and thereby identify any additional structural proteins of ISAV.

Results: In the present study we show that ISAV segment 7 encodes 3 proteins with estimated molecular masses of 32, 18, and 9.5 kDa. The 18-kDa and 9.5-kDa products are based on removal of an intron each from the primary transcript (7-ORF1) so that the translation continues in the +2 and +3 reading frames, respectively. The segment 7-ORF1/3 product is variably truncated in the sequence of ISAV isolates of the European genotype. All three proteins are recognized by rabbit antiserum against the 32-kDa product of the primary transcript, as they all share the N-terminal 22 amino acids. This antiserum detected a single 35-kDa protein in Western blots of purified virus, and immunoprecipitated a 32-kDa protein in ISAV-infected TO cells. Immunofluorescence staining of infected cells with the same antiserum revealed the protein(s) to be localized in the cytoplasm. Vaccination of farmed Atlantic salmon with the 32-kDa protein resulted in a higher survival rate than what was attainable with the HE protein, albeit a moderate protection against the low ISAV challenge.

Conclusion: Collectively, our observations suggest that the product of ISAV segment 7 primary transcript (7-ORF1) is a structural protein. The 18-kDa (7-ORF1/2) protein is identified as the putative ISAV nuclear export protein based on the presence of nuclear export signals. The function of the 9.5-kDa (7-ORF1/3) protein is not presently known.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus