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Daily and estrous rhythmicity of body temperature in domestic cattle.

Piccione G, Caola G, Refinetti R - BMC Physiol. (2003)

Bottom Line: The mature rhythm had a mean level of 38.3 degrees C, a range of excursion of 1.4 degrees C, and was more robust than that of any mammalian species previously studied (90% of maximal robustness).An elevation of about 1.3 degrees C was observed every 21 days on the day of estrus.Small seasonal variations in this pattern were observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Morfologia, Biochimica, Fisiologia e Produzioni Animali, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy. giuseppepiccione1@virgilio.it

ABSTRACT

Background: Rhythmicity in core body temperature has been extensively studied in humans and laboratory animals but much less in farm animals. Extending the study of rhythmicity of body temperature to farm animals is important not only from a comparative perspective but also from an economic perspective, as greater knowledge of this process can lead to improvements in livestock production practices. In this study in cattle, we investigated the maturation of the daily rhythm of body temperature in newborn calves, characterized the parameters of the daily rhythm in young cows, and studied the oscillation in body temperature associated with the estrous cycle in adult cows.

Results: We found that the daily rhythm of body temperature is absent at birth but matures fully during the first two months of life. The mature rhythm had a mean level of 38.3 degrees C, a range of excursion of 1.4 degrees C, and was more robust than that of any mammalian species previously studied (90% of maximal robustness). Sexually mature cows also exhibited a robust estrous rhythm of body temperature. An elevation of about 1.3 degrees C was observed every 21 days on the day of estrus. Small seasonal variations in this pattern were observed.

Conclusion: In conclusion, calves exhibit a very robust daily rhythm of body temperature, although this rhythm is absent at birth and develops during the first two months of life. Adult cows exhibit also 21-day rhythmicity in body temperature reflecting the duration of the estrous cycle.

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Parameters of the estrous rhythm of body temperature. Values shown are means ± SEM of three parameters of the estrous rhythm of body temperature of 8 cows (robustness, mean level, and range of excursion), as computed for measurements conducted at dawn (dark bars) and dusk (clear bars) during the winter and summer. For this type of data (3 estrous cycles with daily measurements), a QP value of 60 corresponds to a perfectly rhythmic process.
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Figure 4: Parameters of the estrous rhythm of body temperature. Values shown are means ± SEM of three parameters of the estrous rhythm of body temperature of 8 cows (robustness, mean level, and range of excursion), as computed for measurements conducted at dawn (dark bars) and dusk (clear bars) during the winter and summer. For this type of data (3 estrous cycles with daily measurements), a QP value of 60 corresponds to a perfectly rhythmic process.

Mentions: Mean values of three parameters of the estrous cycle of body temperature are shown in Fig. 4. Robustness was slightly but significantly higher in the summer than in the winter, F(1, 21) = 22.92, p < 0.001, but there was no significant effect of time of day, F(1, 21) = 1.02, p > 0.05, or of the interaction between season and time of day, F(1, 21) = 3.07, p > 0.05. For this type of data (3 estrous cycles with daily measurements), a perfectly rhythmic process yields a QP of 60. Thus, the robustness of the rhythm ranged from 43% of maximal robustness at dawn in the winter to 63% of maximal robustness at dawn in the summer. As expected, the mean level of the temperature cycle was significantly higher at dusk than at dawn, F(1, 21) = 5806.50, p < 0.001. It was also very slightly but significantly higher in the summer than in the winter, F(1, 21) = 14.00, p < 0.002, primarily at dawn (37.60 ± 0.02°C in the summer vs. 37.55 ± 0.02°C in the winter). The range of excursion was greater at dawn than at dusk, F(1, 21) = 275.84, p < 0.001, and greater in the winter than in the summer, F(1, 21) = 17.92, p < 0.001.


Daily and estrous rhythmicity of body temperature in domestic cattle.

Piccione G, Caola G, Refinetti R - BMC Physiol. (2003)

Parameters of the estrous rhythm of body temperature. Values shown are means ± SEM of three parameters of the estrous rhythm of body temperature of 8 cows (robustness, mean level, and range of excursion), as computed for measurements conducted at dawn (dark bars) and dusk (clear bars) during the winter and summer. For this type of data (3 estrous cycles with daily measurements), a QP value of 60 corresponds to a perfectly rhythmic process.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC184454&req=5

Figure 4: Parameters of the estrous rhythm of body temperature. Values shown are means ± SEM of three parameters of the estrous rhythm of body temperature of 8 cows (robustness, mean level, and range of excursion), as computed for measurements conducted at dawn (dark bars) and dusk (clear bars) during the winter and summer. For this type of data (3 estrous cycles with daily measurements), a QP value of 60 corresponds to a perfectly rhythmic process.
Mentions: Mean values of three parameters of the estrous cycle of body temperature are shown in Fig. 4. Robustness was slightly but significantly higher in the summer than in the winter, F(1, 21) = 22.92, p < 0.001, but there was no significant effect of time of day, F(1, 21) = 1.02, p > 0.05, or of the interaction between season and time of day, F(1, 21) = 3.07, p > 0.05. For this type of data (3 estrous cycles with daily measurements), a perfectly rhythmic process yields a QP of 60. Thus, the robustness of the rhythm ranged from 43% of maximal robustness at dawn in the winter to 63% of maximal robustness at dawn in the summer. As expected, the mean level of the temperature cycle was significantly higher at dusk than at dawn, F(1, 21) = 5806.50, p < 0.001. It was also very slightly but significantly higher in the summer than in the winter, F(1, 21) = 14.00, p < 0.002, primarily at dawn (37.60 ± 0.02°C in the summer vs. 37.55 ± 0.02°C in the winter). The range of excursion was greater at dawn than at dusk, F(1, 21) = 275.84, p < 0.001, and greater in the winter than in the summer, F(1, 21) = 17.92, p < 0.001.

Bottom Line: The mature rhythm had a mean level of 38.3 degrees C, a range of excursion of 1.4 degrees C, and was more robust than that of any mammalian species previously studied (90% of maximal robustness).An elevation of about 1.3 degrees C was observed every 21 days on the day of estrus.Small seasonal variations in this pattern were observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Morfologia, Biochimica, Fisiologia e Produzioni Animali, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy. giuseppepiccione1@virgilio.it

ABSTRACT

Background: Rhythmicity in core body temperature has been extensively studied in humans and laboratory animals but much less in farm animals. Extending the study of rhythmicity of body temperature to farm animals is important not only from a comparative perspective but also from an economic perspective, as greater knowledge of this process can lead to improvements in livestock production practices. In this study in cattle, we investigated the maturation of the daily rhythm of body temperature in newborn calves, characterized the parameters of the daily rhythm in young cows, and studied the oscillation in body temperature associated with the estrous cycle in adult cows.

Results: We found that the daily rhythm of body temperature is absent at birth but matures fully during the first two months of life. The mature rhythm had a mean level of 38.3 degrees C, a range of excursion of 1.4 degrees C, and was more robust than that of any mammalian species previously studied (90% of maximal robustness). Sexually mature cows also exhibited a robust estrous rhythm of body temperature. An elevation of about 1.3 degrees C was observed every 21 days on the day of estrus. Small seasonal variations in this pattern were observed.

Conclusion: In conclusion, calves exhibit a very robust daily rhythm of body temperature, although this rhythm is absent at birth and develops during the first two months of life. Adult cows exhibit also 21-day rhythmicity in body temperature reflecting the duration of the estrous cycle.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus