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Daily and estrous rhythmicity of body temperature in domestic cattle.

Piccione G, Caola G, Refinetti R - BMC Physiol. (2003)

Bottom Line: The mature rhythm had a mean level of 38.3 degrees C, a range of excursion of 1.4 degrees C, and was more robust than that of any mammalian species previously studied (90% of maximal robustness).An elevation of about 1.3 degrees C was observed every 21 days on the day of estrus.Small seasonal variations in this pattern were observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Morfologia, Biochimica, Fisiologia e Produzioni Animali, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy. giuseppepiccione1@virgilio.it

ABSTRACT

Background: Rhythmicity in core body temperature has been extensively studied in humans and laboratory animals but much less in farm animals. Extending the study of rhythmicity of body temperature to farm animals is important not only from a comparative perspective but also from an economic perspective, as greater knowledge of this process can lead to improvements in livestock production practices. In this study in cattle, we investigated the maturation of the daily rhythm of body temperature in newborn calves, characterized the parameters of the daily rhythm in young cows, and studied the oscillation in body temperature associated with the estrous cycle in adult cows.

Results: We found that the daily rhythm of body temperature is absent at birth but matures fully during the first two months of life. The mature rhythm had a mean level of 38.3 degrees C, a range of excursion of 1.4 degrees C, and was more robust than that of any mammalian species previously studied (90% of maximal robustness). Sexually mature cows also exhibited a robust estrous rhythm of body temperature. An elevation of about 1.3 degrees C was observed every 21 days on the day of estrus. Small seasonal variations in this pattern were observed.

Conclusion: In conclusion, calves exhibit a very robust daily rhythm of body temperature, although this rhythm is absent at birth and develops during the first two months of life. Adult cows exhibit also 21-day rhythmicity in body temperature reflecting the duration of the estrous cycle.

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Daily measurements of body temperature over 3 estrous cycles. Shown are the records of body temperature of four representative cows measured at dusk (open circles) and dawn (closed circles) for 60 consecutive days during the summer (left) and winter (right). Vertical dashed lines indicate the days of estrus, as determined by observation of vaginal discharge, increased locomotor activity, and acquiescence to mounting by a bull.
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Figure 3: Daily measurements of body temperature over 3 estrous cycles. Shown are the records of body temperature of four representative cows measured at dusk (open circles) and dawn (closed circles) for 60 consecutive days during the summer (left) and winter (right). Vertical dashed lines indicate the days of estrus, as determined by observation of vaginal discharge, increased locomotor activity, and acquiescence to mounting by a bull.

Mentions: Records of body temperature of four representative adult cows measured at dawn and dusk over three consecutive estrous cycles in the summer and winter are shown in Fig. 3. As expected, temperature measured at dusk was consistently higher than temperature measured at dawn. At both time points, a sharp rise in body temperature was observed on the day of estrus. The duration of the estrous cycle (computed by counting the days between two consecutive estrus episodes, as determined by observation of vaginal discharge, increased locomotor activity, and acquiescence to mounting by a bull) was exactly 21 days in all cycles of all animals in the summer. In the winter, there was some intra- and inter-individual variability. Cycle length ranged from 18 to 23 days with a mean of 21.3 days.


Daily and estrous rhythmicity of body temperature in domestic cattle.

Piccione G, Caola G, Refinetti R - BMC Physiol. (2003)

Daily measurements of body temperature over 3 estrous cycles. Shown are the records of body temperature of four representative cows measured at dusk (open circles) and dawn (closed circles) for 60 consecutive days during the summer (left) and winter (right). Vertical dashed lines indicate the days of estrus, as determined by observation of vaginal discharge, increased locomotor activity, and acquiescence to mounting by a bull.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC184454&req=5

Figure 3: Daily measurements of body temperature over 3 estrous cycles. Shown are the records of body temperature of four representative cows measured at dusk (open circles) and dawn (closed circles) for 60 consecutive days during the summer (left) and winter (right). Vertical dashed lines indicate the days of estrus, as determined by observation of vaginal discharge, increased locomotor activity, and acquiescence to mounting by a bull.
Mentions: Records of body temperature of four representative adult cows measured at dawn and dusk over three consecutive estrous cycles in the summer and winter are shown in Fig. 3. As expected, temperature measured at dusk was consistently higher than temperature measured at dawn. At both time points, a sharp rise in body temperature was observed on the day of estrus. The duration of the estrous cycle (computed by counting the days between two consecutive estrus episodes, as determined by observation of vaginal discharge, increased locomotor activity, and acquiescence to mounting by a bull) was exactly 21 days in all cycles of all animals in the summer. In the winter, there was some intra- and inter-individual variability. Cycle length ranged from 18 to 23 days with a mean of 21.3 days.

Bottom Line: The mature rhythm had a mean level of 38.3 degrees C, a range of excursion of 1.4 degrees C, and was more robust than that of any mammalian species previously studied (90% of maximal robustness).An elevation of about 1.3 degrees C was observed every 21 days on the day of estrus.Small seasonal variations in this pattern were observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Morfologia, Biochimica, Fisiologia e Produzioni Animali, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy. giuseppepiccione1@virgilio.it

ABSTRACT

Background: Rhythmicity in core body temperature has been extensively studied in humans and laboratory animals but much less in farm animals. Extending the study of rhythmicity of body temperature to farm animals is important not only from a comparative perspective but also from an economic perspective, as greater knowledge of this process can lead to improvements in livestock production practices. In this study in cattle, we investigated the maturation of the daily rhythm of body temperature in newborn calves, characterized the parameters of the daily rhythm in young cows, and studied the oscillation in body temperature associated with the estrous cycle in adult cows.

Results: We found that the daily rhythm of body temperature is absent at birth but matures fully during the first two months of life. The mature rhythm had a mean level of 38.3 degrees C, a range of excursion of 1.4 degrees C, and was more robust than that of any mammalian species previously studied (90% of maximal robustness). Sexually mature cows also exhibited a robust estrous rhythm of body temperature. An elevation of about 1.3 degrees C was observed every 21 days on the day of estrus. Small seasonal variations in this pattern were observed.

Conclusion: In conclusion, calves exhibit a very robust daily rhythm of body temperature, although this rhythm is absent at birth and develops during the first two months of life. Adult cows exhibit also 21-day rhythmicity in body temperature reflecting the duration of the estrous cycle.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus