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Inter-familial relationships of the shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes) based on nuclear DNA sequence data.

Ericson PG, Envall I, Irestedt M, Norman JA - BMC Evol. Biol. (2003)

Bottom Line: The DNA sequence data contains a strong phylogenetic signal that results in a well-resolved phylogenetic tree with many strongly supported internodes.Taxonomically it is the most inclusive study of shorebird families that relies on nucleotide sequences.The presented phylogenetic hypothesis provides a solid framework for analyses of macroevolution of ecological, morphological and behavioural adaptations observed within the order Charadriiformes.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Vertebrate Zoology and Molecular Systematics Laboratory, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden. per.ericson@nrm.se

ABSTRACT

Background: Phylogenetic hypotheses of higher-level relationships in the order Charadriiformes based on morphological data, partly disagree with those based on DNA-DNA hybridisation data. So far, these relationships have not been tested by analysis of DNA sequence data. Herein we utilize 1692 bp of aligned, nuclear DNA sequences obtained from 23 charadriiform species, representing 15 families. We also test earlier suggestions that bustards and sandgrouses may be nested with the charadriiforms. The data is analysed with methods based on the parsimony and maximum-likelihood criteria.

Results: Several novel phylogenetic relationships were recovered and strongly supported by the data, regardless of which method of analysis was employed. These include placing the gulls and allied groups as a sistergroup to the sandpiper-like birds, and not to the plover-like birds. The auks clearly belong to the clade with the gulls and allies, and are not basal to most other charadriiform birds as suggested in analyses of morphological data. Pluvialis, which has been supposed to belong to the plover family (Charadriidae), represents a basal branch that constitutes the sister taxon to a clade with plovers, oystercatchers and avocets. The thick-knees and sheathbills unexpectedly cluster together.

Conclusion: The DNA sequence data contains a strong phylogenetic signal that results in a well-resolved phylogenetic tree with many strongly supported internodes. Taxonomically it is the most inclusive study of shorebird families that relies on nucleotide sequences. The presented phylogenetic hypothesis provides a solid framework for analyses of macroevolution of ecological, morphological and behavioural adaptations observed within the order Charadriiformes.

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Phylogeny proposed by Strauch (1978) Systematic relationships among major groups of charadriiform birds proposed by Strauch (1978) based on 70 morphological characters analysed by a character compatibility analysis.
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Figure 1: Phylogeny proposed by Strauch (1978) Systematic relationships among major groups of charadriiform birds proposed by Strauch (1978) based on 70 morphological characters analysed by a character compatibility analysis.

Mentions: Morphological support for monophyly of the Charadriiformes is weak and conflicting hypotheses of charadriiform relationships have been proposed based on analysis of morphological, osteological, and genetic characters. In a detailed osteological study of the order, which included 227 charadriiform taxa, Strauch [3] identified three lineages, Alcae, Scolopaci and Charadrii (Fig. 1). The Scolopaci comprised the Jacanidae (jacanas), Rostratulidae (painted snipe), Scolopacidae (sandpipers, stints, snipe, curlews and allies) and Thinocoridae (seedsnipe). The Charadrii comprised the Dromadidae (Crab Plover), Haematopodidae, Ibidorhynchidae, Recurvirostridae, Burhinidae, Glareolidae, Charadriidae, Chionidae (sheathbills), Stercorariidae, Laridae, Sternidae and Rynchopidae while the Alcae comprised only the Alcidae. Strauch's [3] analysis could not resolve the affinities between the three lineages but reanalyses of the data by Mickevich and Parenti [4], Björklund [5] and Chu [6] identified Alcae as the basal lineage. Additionally, Björklund's [5] reanalysis placed the Charadriidae within the Scolopaci suggesting it formed a monophyletic clade with the Scolopacidae, Jacanidae and Rostratulidae. Consistent with the osteological data, Jehl's [7] analysis of downy young plumage patterns within the Charadrii supported a relationship between the Haematopidae, Ibidorhynchidae, Recurvirostridae, Burhinidae, Glareolidae and Charadriidae.


Inter-familial relationships of the shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes) based on nuclear DNA sequence data.

Ericson PG, Envall I, Irestedt M, Norman JA - BMC Evol. Biol. (2003)

Phylogeny proposed by Strauch (1978) Systematic relationships among major groups of charadriiform birds proposed by Strauch (1978) based on 70 morphological characters analysed by a character compatibility analysis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC184354&req=5

Figure 1: Phylogeny proposed by Strauch (1978) Systematic relationships among major groups of charadriiform birds proposed by Strauch (1978) based on 70 morphological characters analysed by a character compatibility analysis.
Mentions: Morphological support for monophyly of the Charadriiformes is weak and conflicting hypotheses of charadriiform relationships have been proposed based on analysis of morphological, osteological, and genetic characters. In a detailed osteological study of the order, which included 227 charadriiform taxa, Strauch [3] identified three lineages, Alcae, Scolopaci and Charadrii (Fig. 1). The Scolopaci comprised the Jacanidae (jacanas), Rostratulidae (painted snipe), Scolopacidae (sandpipers, stints, snipe, curlews and allies) and Thinocoridae (seedsnipe). The Charadrii comprised the Dromadidae (Crab Plover), Haematopodidae, Ibidorhynchidae, Recurvirostridae, Burhinidae, Glareolidae, Charadriidae, Chionidae (sheathbills), Stercorariidae, Laridae, Sternidae and Rynchopidae while the Alcae comprised only the Alcidae. Strauch's [3] analysis could not resolve the affinities between the three lineages but reanalyses of the data by Mickevich and Parenti [4], Björklund [5] and Chu [6] identified Alcae as the basal lineage. Additionally, Björklund's [5] reanalysis placed the Charadriidae within the Scolopaci suggesting it formed a monophyletic clade with the Scolopacidae, Jacanidae and Rostratulidae. Consistent with the osteological data, Jehl's [7] analysis of downy young plumage patterns within the Charadrii supported a relationship between the Haematopidae, Ibidorhynchidae, Recurvirostridae, Burhinidae, Glareolidae and Charadriidae.

Bottom Line: The DNA sequence data contains a strong phylogenetic signal that results in a well-resolved phylogenetic tree with many strongly supported internodes.Taxonomically it is the most inclusive study of shorebird families that relies on nucleotide sequences.The presented phylogenetic hypothesis provides a solid framework for analyses of macroevolution of ecological, morphological and behavioural adaptations observed within the order Charadriiformes.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Vertebrate Zoology and Molecular Systematics Laboratory, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden. per.ericson@nrm.se

ABSTRACT

Background: Phylogenetic hypotheses of higher-level relationships in the order Charadriiformes based on morphological data, partly disagree with those based on DNA-DNA hybridisation data. So far, these relationships have not been tested by analysis of DNA sequence data. Herein we utilize 1692 bp of aligned, nuclear DNA sequences obtained from 23 charadriiform species, representing 15 families. We also test earlier suggestions that bustards and sandgrouses may be nested with the charadriiforms. The data is analysed with methods based on the parsimony and maximum-likelihood criteria.

Results: Several novel phylogenetic relationships were recovered and strongly supported by the data, regardless of which method of analysis was employed. These include placing the gulls and allied groups as a sistergroup to the sandpiper-like birds, and not to the plover-like birds. The auks clearly belong to the clade with the gulls and allies, and are not basal to most other charadriiform birds as suggested in analyses of morphological data. Pluvialis, which has been supposed to belong to the plover family (Charadriidae), represents a basal branch that constitutes the sister taxon to a clade with plovers, oystercatchers and avocets. The thick-knees and sheathbills unexpectedly cluster together.

Conclusion: The DNA sequence data contains a strong phylogenetic signal that results in a well-resolved phylogenetic tree with many strongly supported internodes. Taxonomically it is the most inclusive study of shorebird families that relies on nucleotide sequences. The presented phylogenetic hypothesis provides a solid framework for analyses of macroevolution of ecological, morphological and behavioural adaptations observed within the order Charadriiformes.

Show MeSH