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Measuring the lung function in the mouse: the challenge of size.

Irvin CG, Bates JH - Respir. Res. (2003)

Bottom Line: Measurement of the effects of drugs, mediators and infectious agents on various models of lung disease, as well as assessment of lung function in the intact mouse has the potential for significantly advancing our knowledge of lung disease.Because of compromises made between precision and noninvasiveness, data obtained may have an uncertain bearing on the mechanical response of the lung.These advances, resulting in our current ability to measure sophisticated indices of lung function in laboratory animals, are likely to lead to important insights into the mechanisms of lung disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Vermont Lung Center, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Room 226, HSRF, 149 Beaumont Avenue, Burlington, VT 05405, USA. Charles.Irvin@uvm.edu

ABSTRACT
Measurement of the effects of drugs, mediators and infectious agents on various models of lung disease, as well as assessment of lung function in the intact mouse has the potential for significantly advancing our knowledge of lung disease. However, the small size of the mouse presents significant challenges for the assessment of lung function. Because of compromises made between precision and noninvasiveness, data obtained may have an uncertain bearing on the mechanical response of the lung. Nevertheless, considerable recent progress has been made in developing valid and useful measures of mouse lung function. These advances, resulting in our current ability to measure sophisticated indices of lung function in laboratory animals, are likely to lead to important insights into the mechanisms of lung disease.

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Two common and basic mechanical models of the lung. A: A homogeneously ventilated model consisting of a single elastic balloon (elastance E) served by a single flow-resistive pipe (resistance R). B: A homogeneous model again with a single airway (resistance R1), but with a Kelvin body consisting of two springs (E1 and E2) and a dashpot (resistance R2) to account for the viscoelastic behavior of the lung tissue.
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Figure 2: Two common and basic mechanical models of the lung. A: A homogeneously ventilated model consisting of a single elastic balloon (elastance E) served by a single flow-resistive pipe (resistance R). B: A homogeneous model again with a single airway (resistance R1), but with a Kelvin body consisting of two springs (E1 and E2) and a dashpot (resistance R2) to account for the viscoelastic behavior of the lung tissue.

Mentions: Measurement of the function of the lung, especially assessment of lung mechanics, is typically done in the context of a model of the lung [18-20]. The simplest model is a tube connected to a bellows (Figure 2A). This model works well for a single breathing frequency, but has major limitations when the changes in lung mechanics that occur with alterations in breathing frequency are considered. This is because the resistive and elastic properties of the lung are substantially dependent on breathing frequency. For example, the resistance of the lung falls as frequency increases over the range associated with normal breathing [21]. To model this type of mechanical behavior, spring-and-dashpot assemblies capable of simulating viscoelastic behavior need to be included in the model (Figure 2B). These basic models allow us to develop mathematical expressions, which can be used to quantitatively assess lung mechanics. The parameters of the models, that is, the resistive and elastic values of their individual components, constitute the endpoints we use to assess lung function experimentally.


Measuring the lung function in the mouse: the challenge of size.

Irvin CG, Bates JH - Respir. Res. (2003)

Two common and basic mechanical models of the lung. A: A homogeneously ventilated model consisting of a single elastic balloon (elastance E) served by a single flow-resistive pipe (resistance R). B: A homogeneous model again with a single airway (resistance R1), but with a Kelvin body consisting of two springs (E1 and E2) and a dashpot (resistance R2) to account for the viscoelastic behavior of the lung tissue.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC184039&req=5

Figure 2: Two common and basic mechanical models of the lung. A: A homogeneously ventilated model consisting of a single elastic balloon (elastance E) served by a single flow-resistive pipe (resistance R). B: A homogeneous model again with a single airway (resistance R1), but with a Kelvin body consisting of two springs (E1 and E2) and a dashpot (resistance R2) to account for the viscoelastic behavior of the lung tissue.
Mentions: Measurement of the function of the lung, especially assessment of lung mechanics, is typically done in the context of a model of the lung [18-20]. The simplest model is a tube connected to a bellows (Figure 2A). This model works well for a single breathing frequency, but has major limitations when the changes in lung mechanics that occur with alterations in breathing frequency are considered. This is because the resistive and elastic properties of the lung are substantially dependent on breathing frequency. For example, the resistance of the lung falls as frequency increases over the range associated with normal breathing [21]. To model this type of mechanical behavior, spring-and-dashpot assemblies capable of simulating viscoelastic behavior need to be included in the model (Figure 2B). These basic models allow us to develop mathematical expressions, which can be used to quantitatively assess lung mechanics. The parameters of the models, that is, the resistive and elastic values of their individual components, constitute the endpoints we use to assess lung function experimentally.

Bottom Line: Measurement of the effects of drugs, mediators and infectious agents on various models of lung disease, as well as assessment of lung function in the intact mouse has the potential for significantly advancing our knowledge of lung disease.Because of compromises made between precision and noninvasiveness, data obtained may have an uncertain bearing on the mechanical response of the lung.These advances, resulting in our current ability to measure sophisticated indices of lung function in laboratory animals, are likely to lead to important insights into the mechanisms of lung disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Vermont Lung Center, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Room 226, HSRF, 149 Beaumont Avenue, Burlington, VT 05405, USA. Charles.Irvin@uvm.edu

ABSTRACT
Measurement of the effects of drugs, mediators and infectious agents on various models of lung disease, as well as assessment of lung function in the intact mouse has the potential for significantly advancing our knowledge of lung disease. However, the small size of the mouse presents significant challenges for the assessment of lung function. Because of compromises made between precision and noninvasiveness, data obtained may have an uncertain bearing on the mechanical response of the lung. Nevertheless, considerable recent progress has been made in developing valid and useful measures of mouse lung function. These advances, resulting in our current ability to measure sophisticated indices of lung function in laboratory animals, are likely to lead to important insights into the mechanisms of lung disease.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus