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Sri Lanka malaria maps.

Briët OJ, Gunawardena DM, van der Hoek W, Amerasinghe FP - Malar. J. (2003)

Bottom Line: The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island.The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax.In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka. o.briet@cgiar.org

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available.

Methods: In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 - 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 - 2002.

Results: The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax. In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced.

Conclusion: This paper provides the first publicly available maps of both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution on the island of Sri Lanka at sub-district resolution, which may be useful to health professionals, travellers and travel medicine professionals in their assessment of malaria risk in Sri Lanka. As incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of these maps are necessary.

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Foreign guest nights in tourist hotels Monthly foreign guest nights spent in tourist hotels in 2001 in malarious areas with an annual parasite incidence > 1 case/1000 population (red lines and dots) and non malarious areas (blue lines and squares). Source: Ceylon Tourist Board: Annual Statistical Report; 2001 [18].
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Figure 5: Foreign guest nights in tourist hotels Monthly foreign guest nights spent in tourist hotels in 2001 in malarious areas with an annual parasite incidence > 1 case/1000 population (red lines and dots) and non malarious areas (blue lines and squares). Source: Ceylon Tourist Board: Annual Statistical Report; 2001 [18].

Mentions: On average, 370,000 tourists visit Sri Lanka annually, of whom the majority (63%) is of European origin . Roughly 14% of tourist hotel nights booked by foreigners in 2001 [18] was in areas with a risk of malaria (API > 1 case/1000 population). Of these, most were spent during months of transmission, as the tourist seasons coincide with the inter-monsoon periods (Figure 5) when malaria transmission is at its maximum. Some of the important tourist destinations, such as the ancient cities of Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, and Sigiriya, and the Yala and Uda Walawe national parks are situated in endemic areas, but these are mainly popular for day trips. Most tourists will therefore not be exposed during evening or night time, when An. culicifacies is most active. Tourist hotels generally provide anti mosquito measures such as pyrethrum mosquito coils and bed nets, and most hotel rooms have a fan or air conditioning, so contact with nocturnal indoor-biting vectors is limited. Repellents are recommended when outdoors after dusk. There is no justification for prescribing chemoprophylaxis to tourists who intend to remain in resorts in the non-malarious areas and make only day trips to destinations in the malaria endemic areas. Physicians and travel clinics should tailor their advice on prophylactic drugs to the individual traveller, taking into account the itinerary and time of travel. The AMC advises travellers to malaria endemic areas (with an API of P. falciparum and/or P. vivax above 10 per 1000 population) to take a weekly dose of 300 mg chloroquine (for adults) as prophylactic measure from one week before the visit until four weeks after the visit. In case of treatment failure due to chloroquine resistance, sulfadoxine/pyremethamine is available at all governmental health facilities in the endemic areas. Carrying anti-malarial drugs for self administration (standby treatment) should not be recommended for Sri Lanka, as facilities for diagnosis and treatment are available in all parts of the country.


Sri Lanka malaria maps.

Briët OJ, Gunawardena DM, van der Hoek W, Amerasinghe FP - Malar. J. (2003)

Foreign guest nights in tourist hotels Monthly foreign guest nights spent in tourist hotels in 2001 in malarious areas with an annual parasite incidence > 1 case/1000 population (red lines and dots) and non malarious areas (blue lines and squares). Source: Ceylon Tourist Board: Annual Statistical Report; 2001 [18].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC183859&req=5

Figure 5: Foreign guest nights in tourist hotels Monthly foreign guest nights spent in tourist hotels in 2001 in malarious areas with an annual parasite incidence > 1 case/1000 population (red lines and dots) and non malarious areas (blue lines and squares). Source: Ceylon Tourist Board: Annual Statistical Report; 2001 [18].
Mentions: On average, 370,000 tourists visit Sri Lanka annually, of whom the majority (63%) is of European origin . Roughly 14% of tourist hotel nights booked by foreigners in 2001 [18] was in areas with a risk of malaria (API > 1 case/1000 population). Of these, most were spent during months of transmission, as the tourist seasons coincide with the inter-monsoon periods (Figure 5) when malaria transmission is at its maximum. Some of the important tourist destinations, such as the ancient cities of Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, and Sigiriya, and the Yala and Uda Walawe national parks are situated in endemic areas, but these are mainly popular for day trips. Most tourists will therefore not be exposed during evening or night time, when An. culicifacies is most active. Tourist hotels generally provide anti mosquito measures such as pyrethrum mosquito coils and bed nets, and most hotel rooms have a fan or air conditioning, so contact with nocturnal indoor-biting vectors is limited. Repellents are recommended when outdoors after dusk. There is no justification for prescribing chemoprophylaxis to tourists who intend to remain in resorts in the non-malarious areas and make only day trips to destinations in the malaria endemic areas. Physicians and travel clinics should tailor their advice on prophylactic drugs to the individual traveller, taking into account the itinerary and time of travel. The AMC advises travellers to malaria endemic areas (with an API of P. falciparum and/or P. vivax above 10 per 1000 population) to take a weekly dose of 300 mg chloroquine (for adults) as prophylactic measure from one week before the visit until four weeks after the visit. In case of treatment failure due to chloroquine resistance, sulfadoxine/pyremethamine is available at all governmental health facilities in the endemic areas. Carrying anti-malarial drugs for self administration (standby treatment) should not be recommended for Sri Lanka, as facilities for diagnosis and treatment are available in all parts of the country.

Bottom Line: The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island.The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax.In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka. o.briet@cgiar.org

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available.

Methods: In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 - 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 - 2002.

Results: The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax. In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced.

Conclusion: This paper provides the first publicly available maps of both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution on the island of Sri Lanka at sub-district resolution, which may be useful to health professionals, travellers and travel medicine professionals in their assessment of malaria risk in Sri Lanka. As incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of these maps are necessary.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus