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Sri Lanka malaria maps.

Briët OJ, Gunawardena DM, van der Hoek W, Amerasinghe FP - Malar. J. (2003)

Bottom Line: The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island.The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax.In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka. o.briet@cgiar.org

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available.

Methods: In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 - 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 - 2002.

Results: The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax. In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced.

Conclusion: This paper provides the first publicly available maps of both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution on the island of Sri Lanka at sub-district resolution, which may be useful to health professionals, travellers and travel medicine professionals in their assessment of malaria risk in Sri Lanka. As incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of these maps are necessary.

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Geometric mean monthly parasite incidence patterns Geometric mean monthly parasite incidence patterns of P. falciparum (red bars) and P. vivax (blue bars) malaria from January (bar on far left) to December (bar on far right), relative to the month with the highest geometric mean incidence, over the period January 1995 to December 2000, at district resolution. The height of the bars in the legend represents 100 percent (The month with the highest geometric mean incidence for the respective malaria species).
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Figure 4: Geometric mean monthly parasite incidence patterns Geometric mean monthly parasite incidence patterns of P. falciparum (red bars) and P. vivax (blue bars) malaria from January (bar on far left) to December (bar on far right), relative to the month with the highest geometric mean incidence, over the period January 1995 to December 2000, at district resolution. The height of the bars in the legend represents 100 percent (The month with the highest geometric mean incidence for the respective malaria species).

Mentions: Figure 4 shows the geometric mean monthly parasite incidence patterns of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria over the period January 1995 to December 2000, at district resolution. In the northern districts, P. falciparum peaks around March, whereas towards the south the peak is shifted towards January. P. vivax generally peaks in January. Except for the northern districts, a second malaria peak of either species occurs around July. This peak is especially pronounced in the west-central districts with very low malaria incidence, where it can even outweigh the January peak. Roughly, in all districts, P. falciparum and P. vivax follow the same seasonal pattern, although P. vivax' seasonality is less explicit. This observation could be due to relapses (activation of hypnozoites in the liver). Therefore, the P. falciparum incidence seems a better proxy for P. falciparum malaria transmission seasonality than P. vivax incidence is for P. vivax transmission seasonality, although these patterns are also somewhat smoothed by recrudescence.


Sri Lanka malaria maps.

Briët OJ, Gunawardena DM, van der Hoek W, Amerasinghe FP - Malar. J. (2003)

Geometric mean monthly parasite incidence patterns Geometric mean monthly parasite incidence patterns of P. falciparum (red bars) and P. vivax (blue bars) malaria from January (bar on far left) to December (bar on far right), relative to the month with the highest geometric mean incidence, over the period January 1995 to December 2000, at district resolution. The height of the bars in the legend represents 100 percent (The month with the highest geometric mean incidence for the respective malaria species).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC183859&req=5

Figure 4: Geometric mean monthly parasite incidence patterns Geometric mean monthly parasite incidence patterns of P. falciparum (red bars) and P. vivax (blue bars) malaria from January (bar on far left) to December (bar on far right), relative to the month with the highest geometric mean incidence, over the period January 1995 to December 2000, at district resolution. The height of the bars in the legend represents 100 percent (The month with the highest geometric mean incidence for the respective malaria species).
Mentions: Figure 4 shows the geometric mean monthly parasite incidence patterns of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria over the period January 1995 to December 2000, at district resolution. In the northern districts, P. falciparum peaks around March, whereas towards the south the peak is shifted towards January. P. vivax generally peaks in January. Except for the northern districts, a second malaria peak of either species occurs around July. This peak is especially pronounced in the west-central districts with very low malaria incidence, where it can even outweigh the January peak. Roughly, in all districts, P. falciparum and P. vivax follow the same seasonal pattern, although P. vivax' seasonality is less explicit. This observation could be due to relapses (activation of hypnozoites in the liver). Therefore, the P. falciparum incidence seems a better proxy for P. falciparum malaria transmission seasonality than P. vivax incidence is for P. vivax transmission seasonality, although these patterns are also somewhat smoothed by recrudescence.

Bottom Line: The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island.The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax.In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka. o.briet@cgiar.org

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available.

Methods: In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 - 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 - 2002.

Results: The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax. In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced.

Conclusion: This paper provides the first publicly available maps of both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution on the island of Sri Lanka at sub-district resolution, which may be useful to health professionals, travellers and travel medicine professionals in their assessment of malaria risk in Sri Lanka. As incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of these maps are necessary.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus