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Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

Hadjichristodoulou C, Mouchtouri V, Vaitsi V, Kapoula C, Vousoureli A, Kalivitis I, Chervoni J, Papastergiou P, Vasilogiannakopoulos A, Daniilidis VD, Kremastinou J - BMC Public Health (2006)

Bottom Line: Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001) and positive water quality tests (r = 0.39, p < 0.001) presented an overall decrease trend over time.Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results.Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Thessaly, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Larissa, Greece. xhatzi@med.uth.gr

ABSTRACT

Background: Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined.

Methods: The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc) of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings.

Results: Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001) and positive water quality tests (r = 0.39, p < 0.001) presented an overall decrease trend over time. In August, 2003, an outbreak of salmonellosis was linked to a hotel restaurant which accommodated athletes during a test event.

Conclusion: Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

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Distribution and regression of the percentage of unsatisfactory inspection results of premises inspected within the Olympic Venues 300 days before the end of the Olympics, r = 0.16, p < 0.001.
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Figure 3: Distribution and regression of the percentage of unsatisfactory inspection results of premises inspected within the Olympic Venues 300 days before the end of the Olympics, r = 0.16, p < 0.001.

Mentions: An overall decrease trend in unsatisfactory inspection results (Figure 2, r = 0.44, p < 0.0001, and Figure 3, r = 0.16, p < 0.005) as well as positive water quality tests (Figure 4, r = 0.39, p < 0.001) was noted during the pre-Olympic and Olympic period. As is shown in Figures 2, 3, and 4 a periodical increase and decrease of unsatisfactory results is noted, which is related to the starting days of the test events where inspectors conducted intensive inspections and sampling. Microbiological results are presented during the last 100 days before the end of the Olympics, because in this period were conducted most of the sampling in everyday basis. The same for the figure 4, in which 160 days before the end of the Olympics were conducted most of the inspections outside the Olympic venues. Figure 3 includes the results of the last 300 days before the end of the Olympics because a large number of inspections were conducted inside the venues during test events, which were taken place over one year period before the Olympics. The percentage of unsatisfactory inspection results during the first period of inspections was 22.8% (339), whereas only 3.7% (96) of the last inspections, before the Olympic Games, presented unsatisfactory results (Table 1).


Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

Hadjichristodoulou C, Mouchtouri V, Vaitsi V, Kapoula C, Vousoureli A, Kalivitis I, Chervoni J, Papastergiou P, Vasilogiannakopoulos A, Daniilidis VD, Kremastinou J - BMC Public Health (2006)

Distribution and regression of the percentage of unsatisfactory inspection results of premises inspected within the Olympic Venues 300 days before the end of the Olympics, r = 0.16, p < 0.001.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1764887&req=5

Figure 3: Distribution and regression of the percentage of unsatisfactory inspection results of premises inspected within the Olympic Venues 300 days before the end of the Olympics, r = 0.16, p < 0.001.
Mentions: An overall decrease trend in unsatisfactory inspection results (Figure 2, r = 0.44, p < 0.0001, and Figure 3, r = 0.16, p < 0.005) as well as positive water quality tests (Figure 4, r = 0.39, p < 0.001) was noted during the pre-Olympic and Olympic period. As is shown in Figures 2, 3, and 4 a periodical increase and decrease of unsatisfactory results is noted, which is related to the starting days of the test events where inspectors conducted intensive inspections and sampling. Microbiological results are presented during the last 100 days before the end of the Olympics, because in this period were conducted most of the sampling in everyday basis. The same for the figure 4, in which 160 days before the end of the Olympics were conducted most of the inspections outside the Olympic venues. Figure 3 includes the results of the last 300 days before the end of the Olympics because a large number of inspections were conducted inside the venues during test events, which were taken place over one year period before the Olympics. The percentage of unsatisfactory inspection results during the first period of inspections was 22.8% (339), whereas only 3.7% (96) of the last inspections, before the Olympic Games, presented unsatisfactory results (Table 1).

Bottom Line: Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001) and positive water quality tests (r = 0.39, p < 0.001) presented an overall decrease trend over time.Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results.Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Thessaly, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Larissa, Greece. xhatzi@med.uth.gr

ABSTRACT

Background: Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined.

Methods: The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc) of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings.

Results: Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001) and positive water quality tests (r = 0.39, p < 0.001) presented an overall decrease trend over time. In August, 2003, an outbreak of salmonellosis was linked to a hotel restaurant which accommodated athletes during a test event.

Conclusion: Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus