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Toxic evaluation of organic extracts from airborne particulate matter in Puerto Rico.

Reyes DR, Rosario O, Rodriguez JF, Jimenez BD - Environ. Health Perspect. (2000)

Bottom Line: Organic compounds, ultrafine particles, biologic components, and transition metals are some of the constituents that reportedly exert some type of adverse effect on human health.The NRB uses normal human epidermal keratinocytes or other types of cells to measure the effect on cell viability when exposed to organic compounds associated to the particles in the air.We validated the NRB for particulate matter by using a standard reference material (SRM 1649).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan.

ABSTRACT
In recent years, several hypotheses have emerged to explain the toxicologic activity of particulate matter. Organic compounds, ultrafine particles, biologic components, and transition metals are some of the constituents that reportedly exert some type of adverse effect on human health. A considerable fraction of the urban particulate matter consists of carbon compounds, which originate mostly from anthropogenic sources. The toxicity of organic fractions from particulate matter have been mainly evaluated by considering their mutagenic activity. This research expands on the toxicologic profile of organic compounds adsorbed to particulate matter, specifically in Puerto Rico, by using the cytotoxic neutral red bioassay (NRB). The NRB uses normal human epidermal keratinocytes or other types of cells to measure the effect on cell viability when exposed to organic compounds associated to the particles in the air. We validated the NRB for particulate matter by using a standard reference material (SRM 1649). We used the NRB to determine toxicologic differences of extracts between an urban industrialized site with anthropogenic activity versus a coastal region with less human activity. The cytotoxicity associated with organic compounds in particulate matter collected at the urban industrialized site was detected in both the particulate matter (3/4) 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) and particulate matter (3/4) 100 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(100)). Greater toxic effects were observed in PM(10) extracts than in PM(100) extracts, but PM(10) toxic effects were not significantly different from those in PM(100). The extracts from the industrialized site were more cytotoxic than the extracts from coastal reference site, although in the summer, extracts from both sites were significantly cytotoxic to normal human epidermal keratinocytes. In addition, the nonpolar extracts of both PM(10) and PM(100) exerted the greatest cytotoxicity, followed by the polar, and, finally, the moderately polar extract. This study demonstrates that extracts from the Guaynabo industrialized site were more toxic than similar extracts obtained from a reference coastal site in Fajardo, Puerto Rico.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

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Toxic evaluation of organic extracts from airborne particulate matter in Puerto Rico.

Reyes DR, Rosario O, Rodriguez JF, Jimenez BD - Environ. Health Perspect. (2000)

© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1638202&req=5

Bottom Line: Organic compounds, ultrafine particles, biologic components, and transition metals are some of the constituents that reportedly exert some type of adverse effect on human health.The NRB uses normal human epidermal keratinocytes or other types of cells to measure the effect on cell viability when exposed to organic compounds associated to the particles in the air.We validated the NRB for particulate matter by using a standard reference material (SRM 1649).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan.

ABSTRACT
In recent years, several hypotheses have emerged to explain the toxicologic activity of particulate matter. Organic compounds, ultrafine particles, biologic components, and transition metals are some of the constituents that reportedly exert some type of adverse effect on human health. A considerable fraction of the urban particulate matter consists of carbon compounds, which originate mostly from anthropogenic sources. The toxicity of organic fractions from particulate matter have been mainly evaluated by considering their mutagenic activity. This research expands on the toxicologic profile of organic compounds adsorbed to particulate matter, specifically in Puerto Rico, by using the cytotoxic neutral red bioassay (NRB). The NRB uses normal human epidermal keratinocytes or other types of cells to measure the effect on cell viability when exposed to organic compounds associated to the particles in the air. We validated the NRB for particulate matter by using a standard reference material (SRM 1649). We used the NRB to determine toxicologic differences of extracts between an urban industrialized site with anthropogenic activity versus a coastal region with less human activity. The cytotoxicity associated with organic compounds in particulate matter collected at the urban industrialized site was detected in both the particulate matter (3/4) 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) and particulate matter (3/4) 100 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(100)). Greater toxic effects were observed in PM(10) extracts than in PM(100) extracts, but PM(10) toxic effects were not significantly different from those in PM(100). The extracts from the industrialized site were more cytotoxic than the extracts from coastal reference site, although in the summer, extracts from both sites were significantly cytotoxic to normal human epidermal keratinocytes. In addition, the nonpolar extracts of both PM(10) and PM(100) exerted the greatest cytotoxicity, followed by the polar, and, finally, the moderately polar extract. This study demonstrates that extracts from the Guaynabo industrialized site were more toxic than similar extracts obtained from a reference coastal site in Fajardo, Puerto Rico.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus