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The role of race and poverty in access to foods that enable individuals to adhere to dietary guidelines.

Baker EA, Schootman M, Barnidge E, Kelly C - Prev Chronic Dis (2006)

Bottom Line: Mixed-race or white high-poverty areas and all African American areas (regardless of income) were less likely than predominantly white higher-income communities to have access to foods that enable individuals to make healthy choices.Without access to healthy food choices, individuals cannot make positive changes to their diets.If certain eating behaviors are required to reduce chronic disease and promote health, then some communities will continue to have disparities in critical health outcomes unless we increase access to healthy food.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Saint Louis University School of Public Health, Salus Center, 3545 Lafayette Ave, St Louis, MO 63104, USA. bakerpa@slu.edu

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The increase in obesity and disparities in obesity and related chronic diseases across racial and ethnic and income groups have led researchers to focus on the social and environmental factors that influence dietary intake. The question guiding the current study was whether all communities have equal access to foods that enable individuals to make healthy dietary choices.

Methods: We conducted audits of community supermarkets and fast food restaurants to assess location and availability of food choices that enable individuals to meet the dietary guidelines established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (e.g., fruit and vegetable consumption, low-fat options). We used 2000 census data to assess the racial distribution and the percentage of individuals living below the federal poverty level in a defined area of St Louis, Mo. Spatial clustering of supermarkets and fast food restaurants was determined using a spatial scan statistic.

Results: The spatial distribution of fast food restaurants and supermarkets that provide options for meeting recommended dietary intake differed according to racial distribution and poverty rates. Mixed-race or white high-poverty areas and all African American areas (regardless of income) were less likely than predominantly white higher-income communities to have access to foods that enable individuals to make healthy choices.

Conclusion: Without access to healthy food choices, individuals cannot make positive changes to their diets. If certain eating behaviors are required to reduce chronic disease and promote health, then some communities will continue to have disparities in critical health outcomes unless we increase access to healthy food.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Unadjusted geographic clustering of fast food restaurants in the St Louis, Mo, study area. The ratio of observed to expected number of restaurants in Cluster 1 is 0.4 (P = .001); Cluster 2, 3.4 (P = .001); Cluster 3, 3.2 (P = .02); Cluster 4, 12.0 (P = .03).
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Figure 4: Unadjusted geographic clustering of fast food restaurants in the St Louis, Mo, study area. The ratio of observed to expected number of restaurants in Cluster 1 is 0.4 (P = .001); Cluster 2, 3.4 (P = .001); Cluster 3, 3.2 (P = .02); Cluster 4, 12.0 (P = .03).

Mentions: There were 355 fast food restaurants located in the study area with a rate of 39.0 restaurants per 100,000 population (Figure 3).  Table 3 shows that four clusters were identified in the unadjusted analysis; Figure 4 shows their location. In Cluster 1, representing 52 census tracts and 20.6% of the study area population, 73 fast food restaurants were expected, and 31 were observed (ratio of observed/expected = 0.4; P = .001). The other three clusters indicated a higher than expected number of fast food restaurants but were based on a much smaller number of census tracts.


The role of race and poverty in access to foods that enable individuals to adhere to dietary guidelines.

Baker EA, Schootman M, Barnidge E, Kelly C - Prev Chronic Dis (2006)

Unadjusted geographic clustering of fast food restaurants in the St Louis, Mo, study area. The ratio of observed to expected number of restaurants in Cluster 1 is 0.4 (P = .001); Cluster 2, 3.4 (P = .001); Cluster 3, 3.2 (P = .02); Cluster 4, 12.0 (P = .03).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1636719&req=5

Figure 4: Unadjusted geographic clustering of fast food restaurants in the St Louis, Mo, study area. The ratio of observed to expected number of restaurants in Cluster 1 is 0.4 (P = .001); Cluster 2, 3.4 (P = .001); Cluster 3, 3.2 (P = .02); Cluster 4, 12.0 (P = .03).
Mentions: There were 355 fast food restaurants located in the study area with a rate of 39.0 restaurants per 100,000 population (Figure 3).  Table 3 shows that four clusters were identified in the unadjusted analysis; Figure 4 shows their location. In Cluster 1, representing 52 census tracts and 20.6% of the study area population, 73 fast food restaurants were expected, and 31 were observed (ratio of observed/expected = 0.4; P = .001). The other three clusters indicated a higher than expected number of fast food restaurants but were based on a much smaller number of census tracts.

Bottom Line: Mixed-race or white high-poverty areas and all African American areas (regardless of income) were less likely than predominantly white higher-income communities to have access to foods that enable individuals to make healthy choices.Without access to healthy food choices, individuals cannot make positive changes to their diets.If certain eating behaviors are required to reduce chronic disease and promote health, then some communities will continue to have disparities in critical health outcomes unless we increase access to healthy food.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Saint Louis University School of Public Health, Salus Center, 3545 Lafayette Ave, St Louis, MO 63104, USA. bakerpa@slu.edu

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The increase in obesity and disparities in obesity and related chronic diseases across racial and ethnic and income groups have led researchers to focus on the social and environmental factors that influence dietary intake. The question guiding the current study was whether all communities have equal access to foods that enable individuals to make healthy dietary choices.

Methods: We conducted audits of community supermarkets and fast food restaurants to assess location and availability of food choices that enable individuals to meet the dietary guidelines established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (e.g., fruit and vegetable consumption, low-fat options). We used 2000 census data to assess the racial distribution and the percentage of individuals living below the federal poverty level in a defined area of St Louis, Mo. Spatial clustering of supermarkets and fast food restaurants was determined using a spatial scan statistic.

Results: The spatial distribution of fast food restaurants and supermarkets that provide options for meeting recommended dietary intake differed according to racial distribution and poverty rates. Mixed-race or white high-poverty areas and all African American areas (regardless of income) were less likely than predominantly white higher-income communities to have access to foods that enable individuals to make healthy choices.

Conclusion: Without access to healthy food choices, individuals cannot make positive changes to their diets. If certain eating behaviors are required to reduce chronic disease and promote health, then some communities will continue to have disparities in critical health outcomes unless we increase access to healthy food.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus