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Inorganic phosphate nanorods are a novel fluorescent label in cell biology.

Patra CR, Bhattacharya R, Patra S, Basu S, Mukherjee P, Mukhopadhyay D - J Nanobiotechnology (2006)

Bottom Line: We report the first use of inorganic fluorescent lanthanide (europium and terbium) ortho phosphate [LnPO4.H2O, Ln = Eu and Tb] nanorods as a novel fluorescent label in cell biology.These nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique, retain their fluorescent properties after internalization into human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), 786-O cells, or renal carcinoma cells (RCC).The cellular internalization of these nanorods and their fluorescence properties were characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy (FS), differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. patra.chittaranjan@mayo.edu

ABSTRACT
We report the first use of inorganic fluorescent lanthanide (europium and terbium) ortho phosphate [LnPO4.H2O, Ln = Eu and Tb] nanorods as a novel fluorescent label in cell biology. These nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique, retain their fluorescent properties after internalization into human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), 786-O cells, or renal carcinoma cells (RCC). The cellular internalization of these nanorods and their fluorescence properties were characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy (FS), differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At concentrations up to 50 microg/ml, the use of [3H]-thymidine incorporation assays, apoptosis assays (TUNEL), and trypan blue exclusion illustrated the non-toxic nature of these nanorods, a major advantage over traditional organic dyes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fluorescent LnPO4·H2O nanorods were visualized by TEM inside the cytoplasmic compartments of HUVEC. (A-C) EuPO4·H2O nanorods and (D-F) TbPO4·H2O nanorodsare observed inside the HUVEC with increasing magnifications. B was the enlarge picture of white block in A, C was the enlarge picture of white block in B. Similarly, E was the enlarge picture of white block in D and F was the enlarge picture of white block in E.
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Figure 7: Fluorescent LnPO4·H2O nanorods were visualized by TEM inside the cytoplasmic compartments of HUVEC. (A-C) EuPO4·H2O nanorods and (D-F) TbPO4·H2O nanorodsare observed inside the HUVEC with increasing magnifications. B was the enlarge picture of white block in A, C was the enlarge picture of white block in B. Similarly, E was the enlarge picture of white block in D and F was the enlarge picture of white block in E.

Mentions: The TEM image of 786-O cells treated with EuPO4·H2O nanorods was shown in Fig. 6. This figure clearly indicated that in most of the cells, uptake of these nanorods occurred. Fig. 7A–C and Fig. 7D–F represent the TEM images of HUVEC cells treated with EuPO4·H2O nanorods and with TbPO4·H2O nanorods, respectively, illustrating that both nanorods could enter the cytoplasmic compartments. The morphology of these cells also clearly demonstrated that they were healthy after internalizing these materials (Fig. 6 and Fig. 7) though their spherical shape was due to trypsinization, neutralization with TNS, and fixation in Trumps solution for TEM. Similarly, the morphology of the fluorescent nanorods remained unchanged after internalization. Similar results were obtained when the 786-O cells were treated with LnPO4·H2O nanorods (data not shown). From the combination of Fig. 1D and Fig. 7F, it appears that the small rods seen in Figure 1D were not internalized by the endothelial cells as illustrated with TEM (Fig. 7F). However, other than the larger TbPO4·H2O nanorods, some aggregated rods were visible in the cytoplasm. It is possible that these smaller rods aggregate similar to cadmium-based salts [32] but are notably less toxic when taken up by endothelial cells.


Inorganic phosphate nanorods are a novel fluorescent label in cell biology.

Patra CR, Bhattacharya R, Patra S, Basu S, Mukherjee P, Mukhopadhyay D - J Nanobiotechnology (2006)

Fluorescent LnPO4·H2O nanorods were visualized by TEM inside the cytoplasmic compartments of HUVEC. (A-C) EuPO4·H2O nanorods and (D-F) TbPO4·H2O nanorodsare observed inside the HUVEC with increasing magnifications. B was the enlarge picture of white block in A, C was the enlarge picture of white block in B. Similarly, E was the enlarge picture of white block in D and F was the enlarge picture of white block in E.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1636656&req=5

Figure 7: Fluorescent LnPO4·H2O nanorods were visualized by TEM inside the cytoplasmic compartments of HUVEC. (A-C) EuPO4·H2O nanorods and (D-F) TbPO4·H2O nanorodsare observed inside the HUVEC with increasing magnifications. B was the enlarge picture of white block in A, C was the enlarge picture of white block in B. Similarly, E was the enlarge picture of white block in D and F was the enlarge picture of white block in E.
Mentions: The TEM image of 786-O cells treated with EuPO4·H2O nanorods was shown in Fig. 6. This figure clearly indicated that in most of the cells, uptake of these nanorods occurred. Fig. 7A–C and Fig. 7D–F represent the TEM images of HUVEC cells treated with EuPO4·H2O nanorods and with TbPO4·H2O nanorods, respectively, illustrating that both nanorods could enter the cytoplasmic compartments. The morphology of these cells also clearly demonstrated that they were healthy after internalizing these materials (Fig. 6 and Fig. 7) though their spherical shape was due to trypsinization, neutralization with TNS, and fixation in Trumps solution for TEM. Similarly, the morphology of the fluorescent nanorods remained unchanged after internalization. Similar results were obtained when the 786-O cells were treated with LnPO4·H2O nanorods (data not shown). From the combination of Fig. 1D and Fig. 7F, it appears that the small rods seen in Figure 1D were not internalized by the endothelial cells as illustrated with TEM (Fig. 7F). However, other than the larger TbPO4·H2O nanorods, some aggregated rods were visible in the cytoplasm. It is possible that these smaller rods aggregate similar to cadmium-based salts [32] but are notably less toxic when taken up by endothelial cells.

Bottom Line: We report the first use of inorganic fluorescent lanthanide (europium and terbium) ortho phosphate [LnPO4.H2O, Ln = Eu and Tb] nanorods as a novel fluorescent label in cell biology.These nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique, retain their fluorescent properties after internalization into human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), 786-O cells, or renal carcinoma cells (RCC).The cellular internalization of these nanorods and their fluorescence properties were characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy (FS), differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. patra.chittaranjan@mayo.edu

ABSTRACT
We report the first use of inorganic fluorescent lanthanide (europium and terbium) ortho phosphate [LnPO4.H2O, Ln = Eu and Tb] nanorods as a novel fluorescent label in cell biology. These nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique, retain their fluorescent properties after internalization into human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), 786-O cells, or renal carcinoma cells (RCC). The cellular internalization of these nanorods and their fluorescence properties were characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy (FS), differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At concentrations up to 50 microg/ml, the use of [3H]-thymidine incorporation assays, apoptosis assays (TUNEL), and trypan blue exclusion illustrated the non-toxic nature of these nanorods, a major advantage over traditional organic dyes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus