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Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa.

Dalvie MA, Cairncross E, Solomon A, London L - Environ Health (2003)

Bottom Line: Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water.Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) criteria.The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Occupational and Environmental Health Research Unit, Department of Public Health, Medical School, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa. aqiel@cormack.uct.ac.za

ABSTRACT

Background: In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals.

Methods: This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides.

Results: The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 microg/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 microg/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 +/- 1.0 microg/L (n = 21) and 3.16 +/- 3.5 microg/L (n = 13) average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69%) followed by Hex River (46%) and Piketberg (39%). Detections were more frequent in surface water (47%) than in groundwater (32%) and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) criteria.

Conclusion: The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Location of sampling sites for pesticides in the Grabouw/Vyeboom Area
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Figure 3: Location of sampling sites for pesticides in the Grabouw/Vyeboom Area

Mentions: The Grabouw district (Figure 3) includes two pomefruit farming areas (Grabouw and Vyeboom). In both areas, the soil is complex but generally promotes run-off to surface water sites [18]. The high annual rainfall tends to encourage run-off.


Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa.

Dalvie MA, Cairncross E, Solomon A, London L - Environ Health (2003)

Location of sampling sites for pesticides in the Grabouw/Vyeboom Area
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC153526&req=5

Figure 3: Location of sampling sites for pesticides in the Grabouw/Vyeboom Area
Mentions: The Grabouw district (Figure 3) includes two pomefruit farming areas (Grabouw and Vyeboom). In both areas, the soil is complex but generally promotes run-off to surface water sites [18]. The high annual rainfall tends to encourage run-off.

Bottom Line: Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water.Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) criteria.The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Occupational and Environmental Health Research Unit, Department of Public Health, Medical School, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa. aqiel@cormack.uct.ac.za

ABSTRACT

Background: In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals.

Methods: This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides.

Results: The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 microg/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 microg/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 +/- 1.0 microg/L (n = 21) and 3.16 +/- 3.5 microg/L (n = 13) average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69%) followed by Hex River (46%) and Piketberg (39%). Detections were more frequent in surface water (47%) than in groundwater (32%) and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) criteria.

Conclusion: The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus