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Estimation of current density distribution under electrodes for external defibrillation.

Krasteva VT, Papazov SP - Biomed Eng Online (2002)

Bottom Line: The non-uniformity of the current density distribution was shown to be moderately improved by adding a low resistivity layer between the metal and tissue and by a ring around the electrode perimeter.However, a number of small-size perforations may result in acceptable current density distribution.The inclusion of skin aeration openings disturbs the current paths, but an appropriate selection of number and size provides a reasonable compromise.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad, G, Bonchev str, block 105 Sofia 1113, Bulgaria. vessika@clbme.bas.bg

ABSTRACT

Background: Transthoracic defibrillation is the most common life-saving technique for the restoration of the heart rhythm of cardiac arrest victims. The procedure requires adequate application of large electrodes on the patient chest, to ensure low-resistance electrical contact. The current density distribution under the electrodes is non-uniform, leading to muscle contraction and pain, or risks of burning. The recent introduction of automatic external defibrillators and even wearable defibrillators, presents new demanding requirements for the structure of electrodes.

Method and results: Using the pseudo-elliptic differential equation of Laplace type with appropriate boundary conditions and applying finite element method modeling, electrodes of various shapes and structure were studied. The non-uniformity of the current density distribution was shown to be moderately improved by adding a low resistivity layer between the metal and tissue and by a ring around the electrode perimeter. The inclusion of openings in long-term wearable electrodes additionally disturbs the current density profile. However, a number of small-size perforations may result in acceptable current density distribution.

Conclusion: The current density distribution non-uniformity of circular electrodes is about 30% less than that of square-shaped electrodes. The use of an interface layer of intermediate resistivity, comparable to that of the underlying tissues, and a high-resistivity perimeter ring, can further improve the distribution. The inclusion of skin aeration openings disturbs the current paths, but an appropriate selection of number and size provides a reasonable compromise.

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Current density distribution profiles in a plane parallel to the electrode and 0.5 mm under the interface layer. Right-side graphs – current density along selected axes in this plane. (a) square-shaped electrode (8.86 cm side), area ~80 cm2; (b) circular electrode (5 cm radius), area ~80 cm2.
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Figure 2: Current density distribution profiles in a plane parallel to the electrode and 0.5 mm under the interface layer. Right-side graphs – current density along selected axes in this plane. (a) square-shaped electrode (8.86 cm side), area ~80 cm2; (b) circular electrode (5 cm radius), area ~80 cm2.

Mentions: The results of the current distribution simulation, obtained for a plane at 0.5 mm under the most commonly used electrode types – rectangular or square-shaped and circular, is presented in Fig. 2a and 2b respectively. The current density profiles along selected axes are shown at the right side. The interfacing layer, of equal surface with the electrode, was chosen of 20 Ωm specific resistivity and 0.5 mm thickness. Thus the total interface resistance under both electrodes did not exceed 2.5 Ω. The square-shaped (8.86 cm side) and circular (5 cm radius) electrodes were of equal 80 cm2 area.


Estimation of current density distribution under electrodes for external defibrillation.

Krasteva VT, Papazov SP - Biomed Eng Online (2002)

Current density distribution profiles in a plane parallel to the electrode and 0.5 mm under the interface layer. Right-side graphs – current density along selected axes in this plane. (a) square-shaped electrode (8.86 cm side), area ~80 cm2; (b) circular electrode (5 cm radius), area ~80 cm2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC149376&req=5

Figure 2: Current density distribution profiles in a plane parallel to the electrode and 0.5 mm under the interface layer. Right-side graphs – current density along selected axes in this plane. (a) square-shaped electrode (8.86 cm side), area ~80 cm2; (b) circular electrode (5 cm radius), area ~80 cm2.
Mentions: The results of the current distribution simulation, obtained for a plane at 0.5 mm under the most commonly used electrode types – rectangular or square-shaped and circular, is presented in Fig. 2a and 2b respectively. The current density profiles along selected axes are shown at the right side. The interfacing layer, of equal surface with the electrode, was chosen of 20 Ωm specific resistivity and 0.5 mm thickness. Thus the total interface resistance under both electrodes did not exceed 2.5 Ω. The square-shaped (8.86 cm side) and circular (5 cm radius) electrodes were of equal 80 cm2 area.

Bottom Line: The non-uniformity of the current density distribution was shown to be moderately improved by adding a low resistivity layer between the metal and tissue and by a ring around the electrode perimeter.However, a number of small-size perforations may result in acceptable current density distribution.The inclusion of skin aeration openings disturbs the current paths, but an appropriate selection of number and size provides a reasonable compromise.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad, G, Bonchev str, block 105 Sofia 1113, Bulgaria. vessika@clbme.bas.bg

ABSTRACT

Background: Transthoracic defibrillation is the most common life-saving technique for the restoration of the heart rhythm of cardiac arrest victims. The procedure requires adequate application of large electrodes on the patient chest, to ensure low-resistance electrical contact. The current density distribution under the electrodes is non-uniform, leading to muscle contraction and pain, or risks of burning. The recent introduction of automatic external defibrillators and even wearable defibrillators, presents new demanding requirements for the structure of electrodes.

Method and results: Using the pseudo-elliptic differential equation of Laplace type with appropriate boundary conditions and applying finite element method modeling, electrodes of various shapes and structure were studied. The non-uniformity of the current density distribution was shown to be moderately improved by adding a low resistivity layer between the metal and tissue and by a ring around the electrode perimeter. The inclusion of openings in long-term wearable electrodes additionally disturbs the current density profile. However, a number of small-size perforations may result in acceptable current density distribution.

Conclusion: The current density distribution non-uniformity of circular electrodes is about 30% less than that of square-shaped electrodes. The use of an interface layer of intermediate resistivity, comparable to that of the underlying tissues, and a high-resistivity perimeter ring, can further improve the distribution. The inclusion of skin aeration openings disturbs the current paths, but an appropriate selection of number and size provides a reasonable compromise.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus