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Structural and functional aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell fenestrae: a review.

Braet F, Wisse E - Comp Hepatol (2002)

Bottom Line: This review provides a detailed overview of the current state of knowledge about the ultrastructure and dynamics of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae.Various aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae regarding their structure, origin, species specificity, dynamics and formation will be explored.In addition, the role of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae in relation to lipoprotein metabolism, fibrosis and cancer will be approached.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Cell Biology and Histology, Free University of Brussels (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels-Jette, Belgium. filipbra@cyto.vub.ac.be

ABSTRACT
This review provides a detailed overview of the current state of knowledge about the ultrastructure and dynamics of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae. Various aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae regarding their structure, origin, species specificity, dynamics and formation will be explored. In addition, the role of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae in relation to lipoprotein metabolism, fibrosis and cancer will be approached.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

High-magnification transmission electron micrograph of a hepatic sinusoid of rat liver, fixed by perfusion-fixation with glutaraldehyde, postfixed in osmium, dehydrated in alcohol, and embedded in Epon (reference[1]). The lumen of the sinusoid (L) is lined by the endothelium (E), showing the presence of fenestrae (small arrows) and coated pits (asterisks). Note a lipid particle (large arrow) which passed the fenestrae, illustrating the sieving effect of fenestrae. The space of Disse (SD) contains numerous microvilli of the parenchymal cells (P). (Courtesy of Drs R. De Zanger, reference [7]). Scale bar, 300 nm.
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Figure 2: High-magnification transmission electron micrograph of a hepatic sinusoid of rat liver, fixed by perfusion-fixation with glutaraldehyde, postfixed in osmium, dehydrated in alcohol, and embedded in Epon (reference[1]). The lumen of the sinusoid (L) is lined by the endothelium (E), showing the presence of fenestrae (small arrows) and coated pits (asterisks). Note a lipid particle (large arrow) which passed the fenestrae, illustrating the sieving effect of fenestrae. The space of Disse (SD) contains numerous microvilli of the parenchymal cells (P). (Courtesy of Drs R. De Zanger, reference [7]). Scale bar, 300 nm.

Mentions: Besides endocytosis and transcytosis, endothelial transport in the liver sinusoidal endothelium occurs through fenestrae without a diaphragm. During this process the endosomal and lysosomal compartments are bypassed. The exchange of fluids, solutes and particles is bidirectional, allowing an intensive interaction between the sinusoidal blood and the microvillous surface of the parenchymal cells. LSEC-fenestrae measure between 100 and 200 nm in diameter, and appear to be membrane bound round cytoplasmic holes (Fig. 1). Their morphology resembles that of a sieve, suggesting their filtration effect (Fig. 2). In the past decade, many challenging questions regarding the ultrastructure of LSEC-fenestrae has been addressed, including: what determines the structure and size of fenestrae? (see § Contraction and dilatation mechanism of fenestrae); and, how are fenestrae formed? (see § Formation of fenestrae).


Structural and functional aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell fenestrae: a review.

Braet F, Wisse E - Comp Hepatol (2002)

High-magnification transmission electron micrograph of a hepatic sinusoid of rat liver, fixed by perfusion-fixation with glutaraldehyde, postfixed in osmium, dehydrated in alcohol, and embedded in Epon (reference[1]). The lumen of the sinusoid (L) is lined by the endothelium (E), showing the presence of fenestrae (small arrows) and coated pits (asterisks). Note a lipid particle (large arrow) which passed the fenestrae, illustrating the sieving effect of fenestrae. The space of Disse (SD) contains numerous microvilli of the parenchymal cells (P). (Courtesy of Drs R. De Zanger, reference [7]). Scale bar, 300 nm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC131011&req=5

Figure 2: High-magnification transmission electron micrograph of a hepatic sinusoid of rat liver, fixed by perfusion-fixation with glutaraldehyde, postfixed in osmium, dehydrated in alcohol, and embedded in Epon (reference[1]). The lumen of the sinusoid (L) is lined by the endothelium (E), showing the presence of fenestrae (small arrows) and coated pits (asterisks). Note a lipid particle (large arrow) which passed the fenestrae, illustrating the sieving effect of fenestrae. The space of Disse (SD) contains numerous microvilli of the parenchymal cells (P). (Courtesy of Drs R. De Zanger, reference [7]). Scale bar, 300 nm.
Mentions: Besides endocytosis and transcytosis, endothelial transport in the liver sinusoidal endothelium occurs through fenestrae without a diaphragm. During this process the endosomal and lysosomal compartments are bypassed. The exchange of fluids, solutes and particles is bidirectional, allowing an intensive interaction between the sinusoidal blood and the microvillous surface of the parenchymal cells. LSEC-fenestrae measure between 100 and 200 nm in diameter, and appear to be membrane bound round cytoplasmic holes (Fig. 1). Their morphology resembles that of a sieve, suggesting their filtration effect (Fig. 2). In the past decade, many challenging questions regarding the ultrastructure of LSEC-fenestrae has been addressed, including: what determines the structure and size of fenestrae? (see § Contraction and dilatation mechanism of fenestrae); and, how are fenestrae formed? (see § Formation of fenestrae).

Bottom Line: This review provides a detailed overview of the current state of knowledge about the ultrastructure and dynamics of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae.Various aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae regarding their structure, origin, species specificity, dynamics and formation will be explored.In addition, the role of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae in relation to lipoprotein metabolism, fibrosis and cancer will be approached.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Cell Biology and Histology, Free University of Brussels (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels-Jette, Belgium. filipbra@cyto.vub.ac.be

ABSTRACT
This review provides a detailed overview of the current state of knowledge about the ultrastructure and dynamics of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae. Various aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae regarding their structure, origin, species specificity, dynamics and formation will be explored. In addition, the role of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae in relation to lipoprotein metabolism, fibrosis and cancer will be approached.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus