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Structural and functional aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell fenestrae: a review.

Braet F, Wisse E - Comp Hepatol (2002)

Bottom Line: This review provides a detailed overview of the current state of knowledge about the ultrastructure and dynamics of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae.Various aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae regarding their structure, origin, species specificity, dynamics and formation will be explored.In addition, the role of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae in relation to lipoprotein metabolism, fibrosis and cancer will be approached.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Cell Biology and Histology, Free University of Brussels (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels-Jette, Belgium. filipbra@cyto.vub.ac.be

ABSTRACT
This review provides a detailed overview of the current state of knowledge about the ultrastructure and dynamics of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae. Various aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae regarding their structure, origin, species specificity, dynamics and formation will be explored. In addition, the role of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae in relation to lipoprotein metabolism, fibrosis and cancer will be approached.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Low magnification scanning electron micrograph of the sinusoidal endothelium from rat liver showing the fenestrated wall. Notice the clustering of fenestrae in sieve plates. Scale bar, 1 μm.
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Figure 1: Low magnification scanning electron micrograph of the sinusoidal endothelium from rat liver showing the fenestrated wall. Notice the clustering of fenestrae in sieve plates. Scale bar, 1 μm.

Mentions: Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) constitute the sinusoidal wall, also called the endothelium, or endothelial lining. The liver sinusoids can be regarded as unique capillaries which differ from other capillaries in the body, because of the presence of open pores or fenestrae lacking a diaphragm and a basal lamina underneath the endothelium. The first description and electron microscopic observation of LSEC fenestrae was given by Wisse in 1970 [1]. The application of perfusion fixation to the rat liver revealed groups of fenestrae arranged in sieve plates. In subsequent reports, Widmann [2] and Ogawa [3] verified the existence of fenestrae in LSEC by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In general, endothelial fenestrae measure 150–175 nm in diameter, occur at a frequency of 9–13 per μm2, and occupy 6–8% of the endothelial surface in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (Fig. 1) [4]. In addition, differences in fenestrae diameter and frequency in periportal and centrilobular zones were demonstrated; in SEM the diameter decreases slightly from 110.7 ± 0.2 nm to 104.8 ± 0.2 nm, whereas the frequency increases from 9 to 13 per μm2, resulting in an increase in porosity from 6 to 8 % from periportal to centrilobular [5]. Other ultrastructural characteristics of LSEC are: the presence of numerous bristle-coated micropinocytotic vesicles and many lysosome-like vacuoles in the perikaryon, indicating a well developed endocytotic activity. The nucleus sometimes contains a peculiar body, the sphaeridium [1,6].


Structural and functional aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell fenestrae: a review.

Braet F, Wisse E - Comp Hepatol (2002)

Low magnification scanning electron micrograph of the sinusoidal endothelium from rat liver showing the fenestrated wall. Notice the clustering of fenestrae in sieve plates. Scale bar, 1 μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC131011&req=5

Figure 1: Low magnification scanning electron micrograph of the sinusoidal endothelium from rat liver showing the fenestrated wall. Notice the clustering of fenestrae in sieve plates. Scale bar, 1 μm.
Mentions: Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) constitute the sinusoidal wall, also called the endothelium, or endothelial lining. The liver sinusoids can be regarded as unique capillaries which differ from other capillaries in the body, because of the presence of open pores or fenestrae lacking a diaphragm and a basal lamina underneath the endothelium. The first description and electron microscopic observation of LSEC fenestrae was given by Wisse in 1970 [1]. The application of perfusion fixation to the rat liver revealed groups of fenestrae arranged in sieve plates. In subsequent reports, Widmann [2] and Ogawa [3] verified the existence of fenestrae in LSEC by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In general, endothelial fenestrae measure 150–175 nm in diameter, occur at a frequency of 9–13 per μm2, and occupy 6–8% of the endothelial surface in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (Fig. 1) [4]. In addition, differences in fenestrae diameter and frequency in periportal and centrilobular zones were demonstrated; in SEM the diameter decreases slightly from 110.7 ± 0.2 nm to 104.8 ± 0.2 nm, whereas the frequency increases from 9 to 13 per μm2, resulting in an increase in porosity from 6 to 8 % from periportal to centrilobular [5]. Other ultrastructural characteristics of LSEC are: the presence of numerous bristle-coated micropinocytotic vesicles and many lysosome-like vacuoles in the perikaryon, indicating a well developed endocytotic activity. The nucleus sometimes contains a peculiar body, the sphaeridium [1,6].

Bottom Line: This review provides a detailed overview of the current state of knowledge about the ultrastructure and dynamics of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae.Various aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae regarding their structure, origin, species specificity, dynamics and formation will be explored.In addition, the role of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae in relation to lipoprotein metabolism, fibrosis and cancer will be approached.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Cell Biology and Histology, Free University of Brussels (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels-Jette, Belgium. filipbra@cyto.vub.ac.be

ABSTRACT
This review provides a detailed overview of the current state of knowledge about the ultrastructure and dynamics of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae. Various aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae regarding their structure, origin, species specificity, dynamics and formation will be explored. In addition, the role of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae in relation to lipoprotein metabolism, fibrosis and cancer will be approached.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus