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Magnetic stimulation for non-homogeneous biological structures.

Krasteva VT, Papazov SP, Daskalov IK - Biomed Eng Online (2002)

Bottom Line: This technology has the advantage of reduced excitation of sensory nerve endings, and hence results in quasi-painless action.A tendency was found of the induced currents to follow paths in lower resistivity layers, deviating from the expected theoretical course for a homogeneous domain.Thus, the possibilities are improved for analysis of distributions induced by time-varying currents from contours of various geometry and position with respect to the medium.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Center of Biomedical Engineering Acad, G, Bonchev str, block 105 Sofia 1113, Bulgaria. vessika@clbme.bas.bg

ABSTRACT

Background: Magnetic stimulation has gained relatively wide application in studying nervous system structures. This technology has the advantage of reduced excitation of sensory nerve endings, and hence results in quasi-painless action. It has become clinically accepted modality for brain stimulation. However, theoretical and practical solutions for assessment of induced current distribution need more detailed and accurate consideration. Some possible analyses are proposed for distribution of the current induced from excitation current contours of different shape and disposition. Relatively non-difficult solutions are shown, applicable for two- and three-dimensional analysis.

Methods: The boundary conditions for field analysis by the internal Dirichlet problem are introduced, based on the vector potential field excited by external current coils. The feedback from the induced eddy currents is neglected. Finite element modeling is applied for obtaining the electromagnetic fields distribution in a non-homogeneous domain.

Results: The distributions were obtained in a non-homogeneous structure comprised of homogeneous layers. A tendency was found of the induced currents to follow paths in lower resistivity layers, deviating from the expected theoretical course for a homogeneous domain. Current density concentrations occur at the boundary between layers, suggesting the possibility for focusing on, or predicting of, a zone of stimulation.

Conclusion: The theoretical basis and simplified approach for generation of 3D FEM networks for magnetic stimulation analysis are presented, applicable in non-homogeneous and non-linear media. The inconveniences of introducing external excitation currents are avoided. Thus, the possibilities are improved for analysis of distributions induced by time-varying currents from contours of various geometry and position with respect to the medium.

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Current density vectors distribution, excited by rectangular coils in a fan-like assembly in the homogeneous (a) and non-homogeneous (b) domains. Section and viewing angle as in Figs. 4,5,6,7.
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Figure 10: Current density vectors distribution, excited by rectangular coils in a fan-like assembly in the homogeneous (a) and non-homogeneous (b) domains. Section and viewing angle as in Figs. 4,5,6,7.

Mentions: It was found that the current lines tend to form loops in the low resistivity layers, in addition to running in opposition to the excitation current, as would be in an homogeneous medium. In order to better observe the induced current lines across layers of different resistivities, the non-homogeneity is modeled by vertical layers and the coil position is on the upper surface of the medium, in the XOZ plane (Fig. 8). The effect of more complicated current contours can also be studied. The distribution of the induced vector-potential by the fan-like assembly (slinky coils, [12]), viewed from the upper XOZ surface, is shown in Fig. 9. The corresponding eddy currents distributions in the homogeneous and non-homogeneous media are shown in Fig. 10a,10b.


Magnetic stimulation for non-homogeneous biological structures.

Krasteva VT, Papazov SP, Daskalov IK - Biomed Eng Online (2002)

Current density vectors distribution, excited by rectangular coils in a fan-like assembly in the homogeneous (a) and non-homogeneous (b) domains. Section and viewing angle as in Figs. 4,5,6,7.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC130995&req=5

Figure 10: Current density vectors distribution, excited by rectangular coils in a fan-like assembly in the homogeneous (a) and non-homogeneous (b) domains. Section and viewing angle as in Figs. 4,5,6,7.
Mentions: It was found that the current lines tend to form loops in the low resistivity layers, in addition to running in opposition to the excitation current, as would be in an homogeneous medium. In order to better observe the induced current lines across layers of different resistivities, the non-homogeneity is modeled by vertical layers and the coil position is on the upper surface of the medium, in the XOZ plane (Fig. 8). The effect of more complicated current contours can also be studied. The distribution of the induced vector-potential by the fan-like assembly (slinky coils, [12]), viewed from the upper XOZ surface, is shown in Fig. 9. The corresponding eddy currents distributions in the homogeneous and non-homogeneous media are shown in Fig. 10a,10b.

Bottom Line: This technology has the advantage of reduced excitation of sensory nerve endings, and hence results in quasi-painless action.A tendency was found of the induced currents to follow paths in lower resistivity layers, deviating from the expected theoretical course for a homogeneous domain.Thus, the possibilities are improved for analysis of distributions induced by time-varying currents from contours of various geometry and position with respect to the medium.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Center of Biomedical Engineering Acad, G, Bonchev str, block 105 Sofia 1113, Bulgaria. vessika@clbme.bas.bg

ABSTRACT

Background: Magnetic stimulation has gained relatively wide application in studying nervous system structures. This technology has the advantage of reduced excitation of sensory nerve endings, and hence results in quasi-painless action. It has become clinically accepted modality for brain stimulation. However, theoretical and practical solutions for assessment of induced current distribution need more detailed and accurate consideration. Some possible analyses are proposed for distribution of the current induced from excitation current contours of different shape and disposition. Relatively non-difficult solutions are shown, applicable for two- and three-dimensional analysis.

Methods: The boundary conditions for field analysis by the internal Dirichlet problem are introduced, based on the vector potential field excited by external current coils. The feedback from the induced eddy currents is neglected. Finite element modeling is applied for obtaining the electromagnetic fields distribution in a non-homogeneous domain.

Results: The distributions were obtained in a non-homogeneous structure comprised of homogeneous layers. A tendency was found of the induced currents to follow paths in lower resistivity layers, deviating from the expected theoretical course for a homogeneous domain. Current density concentrations occur at the boundary between layers, suggesting the possibility for focusing on, or predicting of, a zone of stimulation.

Conclusion: The theoretical basis and simplified approach for generation of 3D FEM networks for magnetic stimulation analysis are presented, applicable in non-homogeneous and non-linear media. The inconveniences of introducing external excitation currents are avoided. Thus, the possibilities are improved for analysis of distributions induced by time-varying currents from contours of various geometry and position with respect to the medium.

Show MeSH