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What can we hope to gain for trypanosomiasis control from molecular studies on tsetse biology ?

Aksoy S, Hao Z, Strickler PM - Kinetoplastid Biol Dis (2002)

Bottom Line: While undoubtedly the treatment of thousands of infected people is the top priority, without continued research and development on the biology of disease agents and on ecological and evolutionary forces impacting these epidemics, little progress can be gained in the long run for the eventual control of these diseases.Lacking are studies aimed to understand the genetic and cellular basis of tsetse interactions with trypanosomes as well as the genetic and biochemical basis of its ability to transmit these parasites.We discuss how this knowledge has the potential to contribute to the development of new vector control strategies as well as to improve the efficacy and affordability of the existing control approaches.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Section of Vector Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, 60 College St, 606 LEPH, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. serap.aksoy@yale.edu

ABSTRACT
At times of crisis when epidemics rage and begin to take their toll on affected populations, as we have been witnessing with African trypanosomiasis in subSahara, the dichotomy of basic versus applied research deepens. While undoubtedly the treatment of thousands of infected people is the top priority, without continued research and development on the biology of disease agents and on ecological and evolutionary forces impacting these epidemics, little progress can be gained in the long run for the eventual control of these diseases. Here, we argue the need for additional research in one under-investigated area, that is the biology of the tsetse vector. Lacking are studies aimed to understand the genetic and cellular basis of tsetse interactions with trypanosomes as well as the genetic and biochemical basis of its ability to transmit these parasites. We discuss how this knowledge has the potential to contribute to the development of new vector control strategies as well as to improve the efficacy and affordability of the existing control approaches.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Regulation of attacin, defensin and diptericin expression in fat body during the course of parasite establishment and the immuno-competence of parasite infected and infection cured flies. A: Northern analysis showing gene expression in fat body 3 and 6 days following a parasite infected bloodmeal (Lanes 1 and 2, respectively), and after 10 days when flies were scored as infected (+) or parasite infection cured (-) (Lanes 3 and 4, respectively). B: Gene expression in fat body from flies with (Lane 1) and without (Lane 3) gut parasite infections 20 days after receiving the infectious bloodmeal, and their immuno-competence after challenge (Lanes 2 and 4, respectively). +, parasite infected; -, parasite cured; N, naive; I, immune stimulated.
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Figure 2: Regulation of attacin, defensin and diptericin expression in fat body during the course of parasite establishment and the immuno-competence of parasite infected and infection cured flies. A: Northern analysis showing gene expression in fat body 3 and 6 days following a parasite infected bloodmeal (Lanes 1 and 2, respectively), and after 10 days when flies were scored as infected (+) or parasite infection cured (-) (Lanes 3 and 4, respectively). B: Gene expression in fat body from flies with (Lane 1) and without (Lane 3) gut parasite infections 20 days after receiving the infectious bloodmeal, and their immuno-competence after challenge (Lanes 2 and 4, respectively). +, parasite infected; -, parasite cured; N, naive; I, immune stimulated.

Mentions: In other experiments where the parasite was introduced into the hemolymph of the fly via microinjections, again there was no upregulation of transcription of these antimicrobial peptide genes in fat body although similar microinjections of E. coli resulted in abundant and long-lasting response [22]. However when we analyzed the transcriptional expression of these genes in fat body of flies with established midgut parasite infections, we were surprised. In these parasite infected flies, the same marker genes were being expressed abundantly in fat body although apparently their presumably synthesized products did not affect the viability of the parasites in midgut (Figure 2). Other flies that had been able to clear their parasite infections however no longer expressed these peptide gene transcripts.


What can we hope to gain for trypanosomiasis control from molecular studies on tsetse biology ?

Aksoy S, Hao Z, Strickler PM - Kinetoplastid Biol Dis (2002)

Regulation of attacin, defensin and diptericin expression in fat body during the course of parasite establishment and the immuno-competence of parasite infected and infection cured flies. A: Northern analysis showing gene expression in fat body 3 and 6 days following a parasite infected bloodmeal (Lanes 1 and 2, respectively), and after 10 days when flies were scored as infected (+) or parasite infection cured (-) (Lanes 3 and 4, respectively). B: Gene expression in fat body from flies with (Lane 1) and without (Lane 3) gut parasite infections 20 days after receiving the infectious bloodmeal, and their immuno-competence after challenge (Lanes 2 and 4, respectively). +, parasite infected; -, parasite cured; N, naive; I, immune stimulated.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC119325&req=5

Figure 2: Regulation of attacin, defensin and diptericin expression in fat body during the course of parasite establishment and the immuno-competence of parasite infected and infection cured flies. A: Northern analysis showing gene expression in fat body 3 and 6 days following a parasite infected bloodmeal (Lanes 1 and 2, respectively), and after 10 days when flies were scored as infected (+) or parasite infection cured (-) (Lanes 3 and 4, respectively). B: Gene expression in fat body from flies with (Lane 1) and without (Lane 3) gut parasite infections 20 days after receiving the infectious bloodmeal, and their immuno-competence after challenge (Lanes 2 and 4, respectively). +, parasite infected; -, parasite cured; N, naive; I, immune stimulated.
Mentions: In other experiments where the parasite was introduced into the hemolymph of the fly via microinjections, again there was no upregulation of transcription of these antimicrobial peptide genes in fat body although similar microinjections of E. coli resulted in abundant and long-lasting response [22]. However when we analyzed the transcriptional expression of these genes in fat body of flies with established midgut parasite infections, we were surprised. In these parasite infected flies, the same marker genes were being expressed abundantly in fat body although apparently their presumably synthesized products did not affect the viability of the parasites in midgut (Figure 2). Other flies that had been able to clear their parasite infections however no longer expressed these peptide gene transcripts.

Bottom Line: While undoubtedly the treatment of thousands of infected people is the top priority, without continued research and development on the biology of disease agents and on ecological and evolutionary forces impacting these epidemics, little progress can be gained in the long run for the eventual control of these diseases.Lacking are studies aimed to understand the genetic and cellular basis of tsetse interactions with trypanosomes as well as the genetic and biochemical basis of its ability to transmit these parasites.We discuss how this knowledge has the potential to contribute to the development of new vector control strategies as well as to improve the efficacy and affordability of the existing control approaches.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Section of Vector Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, 60 College St, 606 LEPH, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. serap.aksoy@yale.edu

ABSTRACT
At times of crisis when epidemics rage and begin to take their toll on affected populations, as we have been witnessing with African trypanosomiasis in subSahara, the dichotomy of basic versus applied research deepens. While undoubtedly the treatment of thousands of infected people is the top priority, without continued research and development on the biology of disease agents and on ecological and evolutionary forces impacting these epidemics, little progress can be gained in the long run for the eventual control of these diseases. Here, we argue the need for additional research in one under-investigated area, that is the biology of the tsetse vector. Lacking are studies aimed to understand the genetic and cellular basis of tsetse interactions with trypanosomes as well as the genetic and biochemical basis of its ability to transmit these parasites. We discuss how this knowledge has the potential to contribute to the development of new vector control strategies as well as to improve the efficacy and affordability of the existing control approaches.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus