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Foot pressure distribution during walking in young and old adults.

Hessert MJ, Vyas M, Leach J, Hu K, Lipsitz LA, Novak V - BMC Geriatr (2005)

Bottom Line: The effects of healthy aging on FPD during walking are not well known.In the medial calcaneus mask, the elderly group also had a lower absolute maximum and lower mean and normalized mean pressures and forces, compared to young subjects.In elderly subjects, weight bearing on the lateral side of the foot during heel touch and toe-off phases may affect stability during walking.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. mjhessert@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Background: Measurement of foot pressure distribution (FPD) is clinically useful for evaluation of foot and gait pathologies. The effects of healthy aging on FPD during walking are not well known. This study evaluated FPD during normal walking in healthy young and elderly subjects.

Methods: We studied 9 young (30 +/- 5.2 years), and 6 elderly subjects (68.7 +/- 4.8 years). FPD was measured during normal walking speed using shoe insoles with 99 capacitive sensors. Measured parameters included gait phase characteristics, mean and maximum pressure and force, and relative load.Time-series measurements of each variable for all sensors were grouped into 9 anatomical masks.

Results: Elderly subjects had lower normalized maximum pressure for the medial and lateral calcaneal masks, and for all medial masks combined. In the medial calcaneus mask, the elderly group also had a lower absolute maximum and lower mean and normalized mean pressures and forces, compared to young subjects. Elderly subjects had lower maximum force and normalized maximum force and lower mean force and normalized mean forces in the medial masks as well.

Conclusion: FPD differences between the young and elderly groups were confined to the calcaneus and hallux regions and to the medial side of the foot. In elderly subjects, weight bearing on the lateral side of the foot during heel touch and toe-off phases may affect stability during walking.

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Medial calcaneus mask. A. The average maximum and mean pressures, and normalized mean and maximum pressures for medial calcaneus mask for young and old subjects (**p = 0.01, *** normalized maximum pressure p = 0.001, *** normalized mean pressure p = 0.0006). B. The average mean and maximum forces and normalized mean and maximum forces for medial calcaneus for the young and old groups (mean ± SD, maximum force * p = 0.05 *** normalized maximumn force p = 0.001, mean force * p = 0.02, *** normalized mean force p = 0.0006).
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Figure 3: Medial calcaneus mask. A. The average maximum and mean pressures, and normalized mean and maximum pressures for medial calcaneus mask for young and old subjects (**p = 0.01, *** normalized maximum pressure p = 0.001, *** normalized mean pressure p = 0.0006). B. The average mean and maximum forces and normalized mean and maximum forces for medial calcaneus for the young and old groups (mean ± SD, maximum force * p = 0.05 *** normalized maximumn force p = 0.001, mean force * p = 0.02, *** normalized mean force p = 0.0006).

Mentions: Foot pressure distribution was highly significantly different between masks for the young and old groups for all variables (maximum and mean pressures p < 0.00001, normalized maximum and mean pressures <0.00001 and maximum and mean force p < 0.00001 and normalized maximum and mean force p < 0.00001). Differences in the foot pressure distribution between the young and old groups for the maximum and mean pressures were confined to the calcaneus region and to the medial masks of the foot. Figure 2 shows differences in maximum pressure distribution (normalized for body weight (BW)) for all 9 anatomical regions. Elderly subjects had lower normalized maximum pressure in the medial (3.2 ± 0.5 vs. 4.6 ± 1.1 %BW, p = 0.001) and lateral (2.8 ± 0.6 vs. 3.4 ± 0.8 %BW, p = 0.036) calcaneal masks, for all medial masks combined (2.6 ± 0.2 vs. 3.3 ± 0.2 %BW/cm2, p = 0.019) and marginally reduced in the hallux mask (2.5 ± 1.2 vs. 3.7 ± 1.6%BW/cm2, p = 0.07). In the medial calcaneus region, the elderly group also had lower maximum pressure (22.2 ± 6.3 vs. 32.9 ± 11.8 N/cm2, p = 0.01), as well as lower mean (6.2 ± 1.8 vs. 8.9 ± 3.1 N/cm2, p = 0.01) and normalized mean pressure (0.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.2 ± 0.2 %BW/cm2, p = 0.0006) (Figure 3A). The elderly subjects had also lower maximum force (240.9 ± 77.9 vs. 328.4 ± 138.7 N, p = 0.049) and normalized maximum force (34.3 ± 6.2 vs. 45.6 ± 8.5 %BW, p = 0.001) and the mean force (126.3 ± 34.9 vs. 178.8 ± 71.0 N, p = 0.02) and the normalized mean forces (18.3 ± 3.5 vs. 24.6 ± 4.2 %BW/ cm2, p = 0.0006) (Figure 3B). In the medial region masks, the elderly group had reduced maximum pressure (17.7 ± 1.6 vs. 23.2 ± 1.4 N/cm2, p = 0.02), reduced normalized maximum pressure (2.6 ± 0.2 vs.3.3 ± 2.0 %BW, p = 0.019); and reduced normalized mean pressure (0.5 ± 0.1 vs. 0.7 ± 0.1 % BW, p = 0.037) and borderline mean pressure (3.5 ± 0.5 vs. 4.8 ± 0.4 N/cm2, p = 0.06). In all anterior region masks, the elderly group exerted lower mean pressure (4.1 ± 2.3 vs. 4.8 ± 2.2 N/cm2, p = 0.046), borderline reduced mean force (57.3 ± 36.0 vs. 67.2 ± 33.6 N, p = 0.052) and borderline reduced normalized mean force (8.2 ± 4.5 vs. 9.8 ± 5.0 %BW, p = 0.055).


Foot pressure distribution during walking in young and old adults.

Hessert MJ, Vyas M, Leach J, Hu K, Lipsitz LA, Novak V - BMC Geriatr (2005)

Medial calcaneus mask. A. The average maximum and mean pressures, and normalized mean and maximum pressures for medial calcaneus mask for young and old subjects (**p = 0.01, *** normalized maximum pressure p = 0.001, *** normalized mean pressure p = 0.0006). B. The average mean and maximum forces and normalized mean and maximum forces for medial calcaneus for the young and old groups (mean ± SD, maximum force * p = 0.05 *** normalized maximumn force p = 0.001, mean force * p = 0.02, *** normalized mean force p = 0.0006).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1173105&req=5

Figure 3: Medial calcaneus mask. A. The average maximum and mean pressures, and normalized mean and maximum pressures for medial calcaneus mask for young and old subjects (**p = 0.01, *** normalized maximum pressure p = 0.001, *** normalized mean pressure p = 0.0006). B. The average mean and maximum forces and normalized mean and maximum forces for medial calcaneus for the young and old groups (mean ± SD, maximum force * p = 0.05 *** normalized maximumn force p = 0.001, mean force * p = 0.02, *** normalized mean force p = 0.0006).
Mentions: Foot pressure distribution was highly significantly different between masks for the young and old groups for all variables (maximum and mean pressures p < 0.00001, normalized maximum and mean pressures <0.00001 and maximum and mean force p < 0.00001 and normalized maximum and mean force p < 0.00001). Differences in the foot pressure distribution between the young and old groups for the maximum and mean pressures were confined to the calcaneus region and to the medial masks of the foot. Figure 2 shows differences in maximum pressure distribution (normalized for body weight (BW)) for all 9 anatomical regions. Elderly subjects had lower normalized maximum pressure in the medial (3.2 ± 0.5 vs. 4.6 ± 1.1 %BW, p = 0.001) and lateral (2.8 ± 0.6 vs. 3.4 ± 0.8 %BW, p = 0.036) calcaneal masks, for all medial masks combined (2.6 ± 0.2 vs. 3.3 ± 0.2 %BW/cm2, p = 0.019) and marginally reduced in the hallux mask (2.5 ± 1.2 vs. 3.7 ± 1.6%BW/cm2, p = 0.07). In the medial calcaneus region, the elderly group also had lower maximum pressure (22.2 ± 6.3 vs. 32.9 ± 11.8 N/cm2, p = 0.01), as well as lower mean (6.2 ± 1.8 vs. 8.9 ± 3.1 N/cm2, p = 0.01) and normalized mean pressure (0.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.2 ± 0.2 %BW/cm2, p = 0.0006) (Figure 3A). The elderly subjects had also lower maximum force (240.9 ± 77.9 vs. 328.4 ± 138.7 N, p = 0.049) and normalized maximum force (34.3 ± 6.2 vs. 45.6 ± 8.5 %BW, p = 0.001) and the mean force (126.3 ± 34.9 vs. 178.8 ± 71.0 N, p = 0.02) and the normalized mean forces (18.3 ± 3.5 vs. 24.6 ± 4.2 %BW/ cm2, p = 0.0006) (Figure 3B). In the medial region masks, the elderly group had reduced maximum pressure (17.7 ± 1.6 vs. 23.2 ± 1.4 N/cm2, p = 0.02), reduced normalized maximum pressure (2.6 ± 0.2 vs.3.3 ± 2.0 %BW, p = 0.019); and reduced normalized mean pressure (0.5 ± 0.1 vs. 0.7 ± 0.1 % BW, p = 0.037) and borderline mean pressure (3.5 ± 0.5 vs. 4.8 ± 0.4 N/cm2, p = 0.06). In all anterior region masks, the elderly group exerted lower mean pressure (4.1 ± 2.3 vs. 4.8 ± 2.2 N/cm2, p = 0.046), borderline reduced mean force (57.3 ± 36.0 vs. 67.2 ± 33.6 N, p = 0.052) and borderline reduced normalized mean force (8.2 ± 4.5 vs. 9.8 ± 5.0 %BW, p = 0.055).

Bottom Line: The effects of healthy aging on FPD during walking are not well known.In the medial calcaneus mask, the elderly group also had a lower absolute maximum and lower mean and normalized mean pressures and forces, compared to young subjects.In elderly subjects, weight bearing on the lateral side of the foot during heel touch and toe-off phases may affect stability during walking.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. mjhessert@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Background: Measurement of foot pressure distribution (FPD) is clinically useful for evaluation of foot and gait pathologies. The effects of healthy aging on FPD during walking are not well known. This study evaluated FPD during normal walking in healthy young and elderly subjects.

Methods: We studied 9 young (30 +/- 5.2 years), and 6 elderly subjects (68.7 +/- 4.8 years). FPD was measured during normal walking speed using shoe insoles with 99 capacitive sensors. Measured parameters included gait phase characteristics, mean and maximum pressure and force, and relative load.Time-series measurements of each variable for all sensors were grouped into 9 anatomical masks.

Results: Elderly subjects had lower normalized maximum pressure for the medial and lateral calcaneal masks, and for all medial masks combined. In the medial calcaneus mask, the elderly group also had a lower absolute maximum and lower mean and normalized mean pressures and forces, compared to young subjects. Elderly subjects had lower maximum force and normalized maximum force and lower mean force and normalized mean forces in the medial masks as well.

Conclusion: FPD differences between the young and elderly groups were confined to the calcaneus and hallux regions and to the medial side of the foot. In elderly subjects, weight bearing on the lateral side of the foot during heel touch and toe-off phases may affect stability during walking.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus