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Foot pressure distribution during walking in young and old adults.

Hessert MJ, Vyas M, Leach J, Hu K, Lipsitz LA, Novak V - BMC Geriatr (2005)

Bottom Line: The effects of healthy aging on FPD during walking are not well known.In the medial calcaneus mask, the elderly group also had a lower absolute maximum and lower mean and normalized mean pressures and forces, compared to young subjects.In elderly subjects, weight bearing on the lateral side of the foot during heel touch and toe-off phases may affect stability during walking.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. mjhessert@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Background: Measurement of foot pressure distribution (FPD) is clinically useful for evaluation of foot and gait pathologies. The effects of healthy aging on FPD during walking are not well known. This study evaluated FPD during normal walking in healthy young and elderly subjects.

Methods: We studied 9 young (30 +/- 5.2 years), and 6 elderly subjects (68.7 +/- 4.8 years). FPD was measured during normal walking speed using shoe insoles with 99 capacitive sensors. Measured parameters included gait phase characteristics, mean and maximum pressure and force, and relative load.Time-series measurements of each variable for all sensors were grouped into 9 anatomical masks.

Results: Elderly subjects had lower normalized maximum pressure for the medial and lateral calcaneal masks, and for all medial masks combined. In the medial calcaneus mask, the elderly group also had a lower absolute maximum and lower mean and normalized mean pressures and forces, compared to young subjects. Elderly subjects had lower maximum force and normalized maximum force and lower mean force and normalized mean forces in the medial masks as well.

Conclusion: FPD differences between the young and elderly groups were confined to the calcaneus and hallux regions and to the medial side of the foot. In elderly subjects, weight bearing on the lateral side of the foot during heel touch and toe-off phases may affect stability during walking.

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Foot pressure distribution. A. Maximum pressure distribution on all sensors during stance for one subject. B. The nine anatomical masks superimposed on the insole (MC = medial calcaneus, LC = lateral calcaneus, MA = medial arch, LA = lateral arch, MT1 = first metatarse, 3 = second and third metatarse, 4 = fourth and fifth metatarse, H = hallux, and T = toes).
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Figure 1: Foot pressure distribution. A. Maximum pressure distribution on all sensors during stance for one subject. B. The nine anatomical masks superimposed on the insole (MC = medial calcaneus, LC = lateral calcaneus, MA = medial arch, LA = lateral arch, MT1 = first metatarse, 3 = second and third metatarse, 4 = fourth and fifth metatarse, H = hallux, and T = toes).

Mentions: Figure 1A shows distribution of maximum pressure for one step for all sensors. Time-series pressure measurements for all sensors were grouped into nine anatomical masks [5,13,14] (Figure 1B). These masks corresponded to the following anatomical areas: medial calcaneus, lateral calcaneus, medial arch, lateral arch, first metatarsal, metatarsals two and three, metatarsals four and five, hallux, and toes. The following 5 variables were calculated for the each mask: maximum pressure, maximum force, mean pressure, mean force, and relative load. All variables were calculated for each step and then averaged over the 50 steps for each foot. Maximum pressure was defined as the greatest pressure any single sensor in each mask measured in a single step, and these values were averaged separately for each mask over 50 steps. Mean pressure was defined as the average of all activated sensors in a mask for a single step. To calculate maximum and mean forces, the pressure time-series data were converted to force by multiplying each pressure value with the cross-sectional area of the corresponding sensor. All sensors in a defined mask were added together for each time frame to give the summed time-series for force, which was the total force for each mask. The maximum force was defined as the greatest force exerted for each mask in a single step. The mean force was defined as the average force exerted in each mask for a single step. Body weight was significantly different between men and women (p < 0.0001). All variables were normalized by body weight (BW) and the area of each mask, to account for these factors. Relative load was defined as the ratio of the total force in a specific mask to the total force of all masks combined, expressed as a percentage [5].


Foot pressure distribution during walking in young and old adults.

Hessert MJ, Vyas M, Leach J, Hu K, Lipsitz LA, Novak V - BMC Geriatr (2005)

Foot pressure distribution. A. Maximum pressure distribution on all sensors during stance for one subject. B. The nine anatomical masks superimposed on the insole (MC = medial calcaneus, LC = lateral calcaneus, MA = medial arch, LA = lateral arch, MT1 = first metatarse, 3 = second and third metatarse, 4 = fourth and fifth metatarse, H = hallux, and T = toes).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1173105&req=5

Figure 1: Foot pressure distribution. A. Maximum pressure distribution on all sensors during stance for one subject. B. The nine anatomical masks superimposed on the insole (MC = medial calcaneus, LC = lateral calcaneus, MA = medial arch, LA = lateral arch, MT1 = first metatarse, 3 = second and third metatarse, 4 = fourth and fifth metatarse, H = hallux, and T = toes).
Mentions: Figure 1A shows distribution of maximum pressure for one step for all sensors. Time-series pressure measurements for all sensors were grouped into nine anatomical masks [5,13,14] (Figure 1B). These masks corresponded to the following anatomical areas: medial calcaneus, lateral calcaneus, medial arch, lateral arch, first metatarsal, metatarsals two and three, metatarsals four and five, hallux, and toes. The following 5 variables were calculated for the each mask: maximum pressure, maximum force, mean pressure, mean force, and relative load. All variables were calculated for each step and then averaged over the 50 steps for each foot. Maximum pressure was defined as the greatest pressure any single sensor in each mask measured in a single step, and these values were averaged separately for each mask over 50 steps. Mean pressure was defined as the average of all activated sensors in a mask for a single step. To calculate maximum and mean forces, the pressure time-series data were converted to force by multiplying each pressure value with the cross-sectional area of the corresponding sensor. All sensors in a defined mask were added together for each time frame to give the summed time-series for force, which was the total force for each mask. The maximum force was defined as the greatest force exerted for each mask in a single step. The mean force was defined as the average force exerted in each mask for a single step. Body weight was significantly different between men and women (p < 0.0001). All variables were normalized by body weight (BW) and the area of each mask, to account for these factors. Relative load was defined as the ratio of the total force in a specific mask to the total force of all masks combined, expressed as a percentage [5].

Bottom Line: The effects of healthy aging on FPD during walking are not well known.In the medial calcaneus mask, the elderly group also had a lower absolute maximum and lower mean and normalized mean pressures and forces, compared to young subjects.In elderly subjects, weight bearing on the lateral side of the foot during heel touch and toe-off phases may affect stability during walking.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. mjhessert@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Background: Measurement of foot pressure distribution (FPD) is clinically useful for evaluation of foot and gait pathologies. The effects of healthy aging on FPD during walking are not well known. This study evaluated FPD during normal walking in healthy young and elderly subjects.

Methods: We studied 9 young (30 +/- 5.2 years), and 6 elderly subjects (68.7 +/- 4.8 years). FPD was measured during normal walking speed using shoe insoles with 99 capacitive sensors. Measured parameters included gait phase characteristics, mean and maximum pressure and force, and relative load.Time-series measurements of each variable for all sensors were grouped into 9 anatomical masks.

Results: Elderly subjects had lower normalized maximum pressure for the medial and lateral calcaneal masks, and for all medial masks combined. In the medial calcaneus mask, the elderly group also had a lower absolute maximum and lower mean and normalized mean pressures and forces, compared to young subjects. Elderly subjects had lower maximum force and normalized maximum force and lower mean force and normalized mean forces in the medial masks as well.

Conclusion: FPD differences between the young and elderly groups were confined to the calcaneus and hallux regions and to the medial side of the foot. In elderly subjects, weight bearing on the lateral side of the foot during heel touch and toe-off phases may affect stability during walking.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus