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Smoking, season, and detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in clinically stable COPD patients.

Smieja M, Leigh R, Petrich A, Chong S, Kamada D, Hargreave FE, Goldsmith CH, Chernesky M, Mahony JB - BMC Infect. Dis. (2002)

Bottom Line: Among 62 patients with both blood and sputum available, blood specimens were superior to induced sputum for detection of C. pneumoniae DNA (21 versus 7 detected, P=0.003).Current smoking (odds ratio [OR]=2.6, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 6.6, P=0.04), season (November to April) (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 9.2, P=0.007), and chronic sputum production (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.8, 23.2, P=0.005) were associated with detection of C. pneumoniae DNA.C. pneumoniae DNA prevalence was higher among current smokers, and during winter/spring months.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, St. Joseph's Healthcare and McMaster University, Hamilton ON Canada. smiejam@mcmaster.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence and role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear, and molecular methods of detection may help clarify this relationship.

Methods: Consecutive clinically stable patients with smoking-related COPD attending a tertiary care outpatient clinic were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 100 patients, and induced sputum was obtained in 62 patients. C. pneumoniae DNA was detected in blood or sputum by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results: Patients had mean age (standard deviation) of 65.8 (10.7) years, mean forced expiratory volume in one second (SD) of 1.34 (0.61) L, and 61 (61.0%) were male. C. pneumoniae nucleic acids were detected in 27 (27.0%) patients. Among 62 patients with both blood and sputum available, blood specimens were superior to induced sputum for detection of C. pneumoniae DNA (21 versus 7 detected, P=0.003). Current smoking (odds ratio [OR]=2.6, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 6.6, P=0.04), season (November to April) (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 9.2, P=0.007), and chronic sputum production (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.8, 23.2, P=0.005) were associated with detection of C. pneumoniae DNA.

Conclusions: C. pneumoniae DNA prevalence was higher among current smokers, and during winter/spring months. Prospective molecular studies are needed to examine the role of C. pneumoniae detection in COPD disease symptoms and progression.

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Relation of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA prevalence in blood or sputum versus plasma nicotine metabolite levels among 73 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nicotine metabolites of < 25 μg/L indicate no recent exposure to smoking. For nicotine metabolites = 25 μg/L, odds ratio = 2.1 (95% CI: 0.8, 5.7, P = 0.13) for detection of C. pneumoniae DNA (SPSS).
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Figure 2: Relation of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA prevalence in blood or sputum versus plasma nicotine metabolite levels among 73 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nicotine metabolites of < 25 μg/L indicate no recent exposure to smoking. For nicotine metabolites = 25 μg/L, odds ratio = 2.1 (95% CI: 0.8, 5.7, P = 0.13) for detection of C. pneumoniae DNA (SPSS).

Mentions: To further explore the relationship between current smoking status and the detection of C. pneumoniae DNA, we measured plasma nicotine metabolites in 73 subjects. Levels = 25 μg/L indicate current smoking status. At this threshold, seven former smokers were reclassified as current smokers, and one current smoker as a former smoker. Nicotine metabolites = 25 μg/L were associated with C. pneumoniae DNA with OR of 2.1 (95% CI: 0.8, 5.7, P = 0.13). There was no relationship between higher plasma nicotine levels and the probability of detecting Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA (see Figure 2.)


Smoking, season, and detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in clinically stable COPD patients.

Smieja M, Leigh R, Petrich A, Chong S, Kamada D, Hargreave FE, Goldsmith CH, Chernesky M, Mahony JB - BMC Infect. Dis. (2002)

Relation of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA prevalence in blood or sputum versus plasma nicotine metabolite levels among 73 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nicotine metabolites of < 25 μg/L indicate no recent exposure to smoking. For nicotine metabolites = 25 μg/L, odds ratio = 2.1 (95% CI: 0.8, 5.7, P = 0.13) for detection of C. pneumoniae DNA (SPSS).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC117240&req=5

Figure 2: Relation of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA prevalence in blood or sputum versus plasma nicotine metabolite levels among 73 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nicotine metabolites of < 25 μg/L indicate no recent exposure to smoking. For nicotine metabolites = 25 μg/L, odds ratio = 2.1 (95% CI: 0.8, 5.7, P = 0.13) for detection of C. pneumoniae DNA (SPSS).
Mentions: To further explore the relationship between current smoking status and the detection of C. pneumoniae DNA, we measured plasma nicotine metabolites in 73 subjects. Levels = 25 μg/L indicate current smoking status. At this threshold, seven former smokers were reclassified as current smokers, and one current smoker as a former smoker. Nicotine metabolites = 25 μg/L were associated with C. pneumoniae DNA with OR of 2.1 (95% CI: 0.8, 5.7, P = 0.13). There was no relationship between higher plasma nicotine levels and the probability of detecting Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA (see Figure 2.)

Bottom Line: Among 62 patients with both blood and sputum available, blood specimens were superior to induced sputum for detection of C. pneumoniae DNA (21 versus 7 detected, P=0.003).Current smoking (odds ratio [OR]=2.6, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 6.6, P=0.04), season (November to April) (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 9.2, P=0.007), and chronic sputum production (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.8, 23.2, P=0.005) were associated with detection of C. pneumoniae DNA.C. pneumoniae DNA prevalence was higher among current smokers, and during winter/spring months.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, St. Joseph's Healthcare and McMaster University, Hamilton ON Canada. smiejam@mcmaster.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence and role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear, and molecular methods of detection may help clarify this relationship.

Methods: Consecutive clinically stable patients with smoking-related COPD attending a tertiary care outpatient clinic were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 100 patients, and induced sputum was obtained in 62 patients. C. pneumoniae DNA was detected in blood or sputum by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results: Patients had mean age (standard deviation) of 65.8 (10.7) years, mean forced expiratory volume in one second (SD) of 1.34 (0.61) L, and 61 (61.0%) were male. C. pneumoniae nucleic acids were detected in 27 (27.0%) patients. Among 62 patients with both blood and sputum available, blood specimens were superior to induced sputum for detection of C. pneumoniae DNA (21 versus 7 detected, P=0.003). Current smoking (odds ratio [OR]=2.6, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 6.6, P=0.04), season (November to April) (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 9.2, P=0.007), and chronic sputum production (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.8, 23.2, P=0.005) were associated with detection of C. pneumoniae DNA.

Conclusions: C. pneumoniae DNA prevalence was higher among current smokers, and during winter/spring months. Prospective molecular studies are needed to examine the role of C. pneumoniae detection in COPD disease symptoms and progression.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus