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Mitochondria from cultured cells derived from normal and thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia individuals efficiently import thiamine diphosphate.

Song Q, Singleton CK - BMC Biochem. (2002)

Bottom Line: Previous reports indicate that ThDP can also be taken up by rat mitochondria, but the kinetic constants associated with such uptake seemed not to be physiologically relevant.The results suggest a shared thiamine transporter for mitochondria and the plasma membrane.This finding indicates that the high affinity uptake is physiologically significant and may represent the main mechanism for supplying phosphorylated thiamine for mitochondrial enzymes.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B 351634, Nashville TN 37235-1634, USA. tony.song@vanderbilt.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) is the active form of thiamine, and it serves as a cofactor for several enzymes, both cytosolic and mitochondrial. Isolated mitochondria have been shown to take up thiamine yet thiamine diphosphokinase is cytosolic and not present in mitochondria. Previous reports indicate that ThDP can also be taken up by rat mitochondria, but the kinetic constants associated with such uptake seemed not to be physiologically relevant.

Results: Here we examine ThDP uptake by mitochondria from several human cell types, including cells from patients with thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) that lack a functional thiamine transporter of the plasma membrane. Although mitochondria from normal lymphoblasts took up thiamine in the low micromolar range, surprisingly mitochondria from TRMA lymphoblasts lacked this uptake component. ThDP was taken up efficiently by mitochondria isolated from either normal or TRMA lymphoblasts. Uptake was saturable and biphasic with a high affinity component characterized by a Km of 0.4 to 0.6 microM. Mitochondria from other cell types possessed a similar high affinity uptake component with variation seen in uptake capacity as revealed by differences in Vmax values.

Conclusions: The results suggest a shared thiamine transporter for mitochondria and the plasma membrane. Additionally, a high affinity component of ThDP uptake by mitochondria was identified with the apparent affinity constant less than the estimates of the cytosolic concentration of free ThDP. This finding indicates that the high affinity uptake is physiologically significant and may represent the main mechanism for supplying phosphorylated thiamine for mitochondrial enzymes.

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Uptake of radioactive thiamine by normal and TRMA lymphoblasts and mitochondria isolated from the lymphoblasts. A. Late log phase lymphoblasts from normal (squares) or TRMA individuals (circles) were incubated for 30 minutes with various concentrations of radioactive thiamine. Incubations were carried out in the absence (unfilled symbols) or presence (filled symbols) of a 100 fold excess of non-radioactive thiamine (at each concentration). Cell-associated counts per minute were determined, and the velocity (V) (pmol thiamine per 2 × 106 cells per min.) is plotted versus the concentration (in micromolar) of radioactive thiamine.). Error bars represent SEM for two independent experiments. B. Mitochondria were isolated from lymphoblasts derived from normal (squares) or TRMA individuals (circles) were incubated for 15 minutes with various concentrations of radioactive thiamine. Incubations were carried out in the absence (unfilled symbols) or presence (filled symbols) of a 100 fold excess of non-radioactive thiamine (at each concentration). Mitochondrial-associated counts per minute were determined, and the velocity (V) (pmol thiamine per mg mitochondrial protein per min.) is plotted versus the concentration (in micromolar) of thiamine.). Error bars represent ± SEM for two independent experiments. C. Western anaylsis indicating the presence of the thiamine transporter in plasma membrane fractions and in mitochondrial fractions. Equivalent volumes of subcellular fractions were electrophoretically separated, blotted to a filter, and probed using antisera specific for the human thiamine transporter that is mutated in TRMA individuals. Lane 1, plasma membrane fraction; 2, initial mitochondrial fraction; 3 and 4, successive washes of the mitochondrial fraction; 5, final mitochondrial fraction. 75 micrograms of protein were loaded into each lane with the exception of the lanes containing the washes (3 and 4) which were not quantitated. A faint but reproducible (using different preparations) band was found in the final mitochondrial fraction.
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Figure 1: Uptake of radioactive thiamine by normal and TRMA lymphoblasts and mitochondria isolated from the lymphoblasts. A. Late log phase lymphoblasts from normal (squares) or TRMA individuals (circles) were incubated for 30 minutes with various concentrations of radioactive thiamine. Incubations were carried out in the absence (unfilled symbols) or presence (filled symbols) of a 100 fold excess of non-radioactive thiamine (at each concentration). Cell-associated counts per minute were determined, and the velocity (V) (pmol thiamine per 2 × 106 cells per min.) is plotted versus the concentration (in micromolar) of radioactive thiamine.). Error bars represent SEM for two independent experiments. B. Mitochondria were isolated from lymphoblasts derived from normal (squares) or TRMA individuals (circles) were incubated for 15 minutes with various concentrations of radioactive thiamine. Incubations were carried out in the absence (unfilled symbols) or presence (filled symbols) of a 100 fold excess of non-radioactive thiamine (at each concentration). Mitochondrial-associated counts per minute were determined, and the velocity (V) (pmol thiamine per mg mitochondrial protein per min.) is plotted versus the concentration (in micromolar) of thiamine.). Error bars represent ± SEM for two independent experiments. C. Western anaylsis indicating the presence of the thiamine transporter in plasma membrane fractions and in mitochondrial fractions. Equivalent volumes of subcellular fractions were electrophoretically separated, blotted to a filter, and probed using antisera specific for the human thiamine transporter that is mutated in TRMA individuals. Lane 1, plasma membrane fraction; 2, initial mitochondrial fraction; 3 and 4, successive washes of the mitochondrial fraction; 5, final mitochondrial fraction. 75 micrograms of protein were loaded into each lane with the exception of the lanes containing the washes (3 and 4) which were not quantitated. A faint but reproducible (using different preparations) band was found in the final mitochondrial fraction.

Mentions: Although our interests primarily were in mitochondrial uptake of thiamine and its derivatives, we first examined cellular uptake of thiamine by the lymphoblast cell lines and found thiamine uptake properties typical of other mammalian cells. Figure 1a indicates thiamine uptake by normal lymphoblasts and lymphoblasts derived from a TRMA patient. The high affinity transport of thiamine by normal lymphoblasts is abolished in the presence of a 100 fold excess of unlabeled thiamine. Under such conditions, some uptake continues from a low affinity (Km in the mM range) transport mechanism [3] and/or from diffusion [20] that characterizes thiamine uptake in all mammalian cells examined to date. Using an expanded range of thiamine concentrations from that shown in fig. 1 in multiple experiments resulted in a Km of 1.0 ± 0.9 μM for the high affinity transport by normal lymphoblasts. As expected, lymphoblasts derived from the TRMA patient showed no high affinity thiamine transport as revealed by thiamine uptake being the same in the absence and presence of excess unlabelled thiamine.


Mitochondria from cultured cells derived from normal and thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia individuals efficiently import thiamine diphosphate.

Song Q, Singleton CK - BMC Biochem. (2002)

Uptake of radioactive thiamine by normal and TRMA lymphoblasts and mitochondria isolated from the lymphoblasts. A. Late log phase lymphoblasts from normal (squares) or TRMA individuals (circles) were incubated for 30 minutes with various concentrations of radioactive thiamine. Incubations were carried out in the absence (unfilled symbols) or presence (filled symbols) of a 100 fold excess of non-radioactive thiamine (at each concentration). Cell-associated counts per minute were determined, and the velocity (V) (pmol thiamine per 2 × 106 cells per min.) is plotted versus the concentration (in micromolar) of radioactive thiamine.). Error bars represent SEM for two independent experiments. B. Mitochondria were isolated from lymphoblasts derived from normal (squares) or TRMA individuals (circles) were incubated for 15 minutes with various concentrations of radioactive thiamine. Incubations were carried out in the absence (unfilled symbols) or presence (filled symbols) of a 100 fold excess of non-radioactive thiamine (at each concentration). Mitochondrial-associated counts per minute were determined, and the velocity (V) (pmol thiamine per mg mitochondrial protein per min.) is plotted versus the concentration (in micromolar) of thiamine.). Error bars represent ± SEM for two independent experiments. C. Western anaylsis indicating the presence of the thiamine transporter in plasma membrane fractions and in mitochondrial fractions. Equivalent volumes of subcellular fractions were electrophoretically separated, blotted to a filter, and probed using antisera specific for the human thiamine transporter that is mutated in TRMA individuals. Lane 1, plasma membrane fraction; 2, initial mitochondrial fraction; 3 and 4, successive washes of the mitochondrial fraction; 5, final mitochondrial fraction. 75 micrograms of protein were loaded into each lane with the exception of the lanes containing the washes (3 and 4) which were not quantitated. A faint but reproducible (using different preparations) band was found in the final mitochondrial fraction.
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Figure 1: Uptake of radioactive thiamine by normal and TRMA lymphoblasts and mitochondria isolated from the lymphoblasts. A. Late log phase lymphoblasts from normal (squares) or TRMA individuals (circles) were incubated for 30 minutes with various concentrations of radioactive thiamine. Incubations were carried out in the absence (unfilled symbols) or presence (filled symbols) of a 100 fold excess of non-radioactive thiamine (at each concentration). Cell-associated counts per minute were determined, and the velocity (V) (pmol thiamine per 2 × 106 cells per min.) is plotted versus the concentration (in micromolar) of radioactive thiamine.). Error bars represent SEM for two independent experiments. B. Mitochondria were isolated from lymphoblasts derived from normal (squares) or TRMA individuals (circles) were incubated for 15 minutes with various concentrations of radioactive thiamine. Incubations were carried out in the absence (unfilled symbols) or presence (filled symbols) of a 100 fold excess of non-radioactive thiamine (at each concentration). Mitochondrial-associated counts per minute were determined, and the velocity (V) (pmol thiamine per mg mitochondrial protein per min.) is plotted versus the concentration (in micromolar) of thiamine.). Error bars represent ± SEM for two independent experiments. C. Western anaylsis indicating the presence of the thiamine transporter in plasma membrane fractions and in mitochondrial fractions. Equivalent volumes of subcellular fractions were electrophoretically separated, blotted to a filter, and probed using antisera specific for the human thiamine transporter that is mutated in TRMA individuals. Lane 1, plasma membrane fraction; 2, initial mitochondrial fraction; 3 and 4, successive washes of the mitochondrial fraction; 5, final mitochondrial fraction. 75 micrograms of protein were loaded into each lane with the exception of the lanes containing the washes (3 and 4) which were not quantitated. A faint but reproducible (using different preparations) band was found in the final mitochondrial fraction.
Mentions: Although our interests primarily were in mitochondrial uptake of thiamine and its derivatives, we first examined cellular uptake of thiamine by the lymphoblast cell lines and found thiamine uptake properties typical of other mammalian cells. Figure 1a indicates thiamine uptake by normal lymphoblasts and lymphoblasts derived from a TRMA patient. The high affinity transport of thiamine by normal lymphoblasts is abolished in the presence of a 100 fold excess of unlabeled thiamine. Under such conditions, some uptake continues from a low affinity (Km in the mM range) transport mechanism [3] and/or from diffusion [20] that characterizes thiamine uptake in all mammalian cells examined to date. Using an expanded range of thiamine concentrations from that shown in fig. 1 in multiple experiments resulted in a Km of 1.0 ± 0.9 μM for the high affinity transport by normal lymphoblasts. As expected, lymphoblasts derived from the TRMA patient showed no high affinity thiamine transport as revealed by thiamine uptake being the same in the absence and presence of excess unlabelled thiamine.

Bottom Line: Previous reports indicate that ThDP can also be taken up by rat mitochondria, but the kinetic constants associated with such uptake seemed not to be physiologically relevant.The results suggest a shared thiamine transporter for mitochondria and the plasma membrane.This finding indicates that the high affinity uptake is physiologically significant and may represent the main mechanism for supplying phosphorylated thiamine for mitochondrial enzymes.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B 351634, Nashville TN 37235-1634, USA. tony.song@vanderbilt.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) is the active form of thiamine, and it serves as a cofactor for several enzymes, both cytosolic and mitochondrial. Isolated mitochondria have been shown to take up thiamine yet thiamine diphosphokinase is cytosolic and not present in mitochondria. Previous reports indicate that ThDP can also be taken up by rat mitochondria, but the kinetic constants associated with such uptake seemed not to be physiologically relevant.

Results: Here we examine ThDP uptake by mitochondria from several human cell types, including cells from patients with thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) that lack a functional thiamine transporter of the plasma membrane. Although mitochondria from normal lymphoblasts took up thiamine in the low micromolar range, surprisingly mitochondria from TRMA lymphoblasts lacked this uptake component. ThDP was taken up efficiently by mitochondria isolated from either normal or TRMA lymphoblasts. Uptake was saturable and biphasic with a high affinity component characterized by a Km of 0.4 to 0.6 microM. Mitochondria from other cell types possessed a similar high affinity uptake component with variation seen in uptake capacity as revealed by differences in Vmax values.

Conclusions: The results suggest a shared thiamine transporter for mitochondria and the plasma membrane. Additionally, a high affinity component of ThDP uptake by mitochondria was identified with the apparent affinity constant less than the estimates of the cytosolic concentration of free ThDP. This finding indicates that the high affinity uptake is physiologically significant and may represent the main mechanism for supplying phosphorylated thiamine for mitochondrial enzymes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus