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Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae): A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties.

Naser B, Bodinet C, Tegtmeier M, Lindequist U - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2005)

Bottom Line: Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data.This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especially the different contents of essential oil (Thujone) in relation to different extraction procedures of this medicinal plant.Thuja's antiviral action and immunopharmacological potential, such as stimulatory and co-stimulatory effects on cytokine and antibody production and activation of macrophages and other immunocompetent cells, have been evaluated in numerous in vitro and in vivo investigations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Arbor vitae (Thuja occidentalis L.) is a native European tree widely used in homeopathy and evidence-based phytotherapy. Many reviews and monographs have been published on the herbal substance's description, mode of action and clinical use. However, no comprehensive evidence-based review is available. Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data. This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especially the different contents of essential oil (Thujone) in relation to different extraction procedures of this medicinal plant. Thuja's antiviral action and immunopharmacological potential, such as stimulatory and co-stimulatory effects on cytokine and antibody production and activation of macrophages and other immunocompetent cells, have been evaluated in numerous in vitro and in vivo investigations. Although no controlled trials have been conducted on Thuja occ alone, many clinical studies have been performed with a herbal medicinal product containing a special extract of Thuja occ and other immunostimulants, demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy and safety in respiratory tract infections.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Improvement of rhinitis scores (congested nose, runny nose, sniffling, frequency of handkerchief use, frequency of sneezing). Mean symptom scores (baseline adjusted mean and SE) are shown for placebo (n = 57) and the Thuja-containing herbal remedy (n = 58). P-values for the differences between treatment groups are given for the patients with a symptom score of ≥4 at day 1 (repeated measures; co-variates at day 1).
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fig6: Improvement of rhinitis scores (congested nose, runny nose, sniffling, frequency of handkerchief use, frequency of sneezing). Mean symptom scores (baseline adjusted mean and SE) are shown for placebo (n = 57) and the Thuja-containing herbal remedy (n = 58). P-values for the differences between treatment groups are given for the patients with a symptom score of ≥4 at day 1 (repeated measures; co-variates at day 1).

Mentions: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study (15 practitioners in Germany), patients suffering from acute common cold were randomized to receive Esberitox (Thuja daily dose corresponding to 6 mg three times daily (t.i.d.)] or placebo for 7–9 days (48). On a daily basis, the patients documented the intensity of 18 cold symptoms and their overall cold status on a 10-point scale and rated their general well-being using Welzel–Kohnen color scales. Additionally, a physician assessed the severity of illness on days 4 and 8 using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI-1). The main and confirmatory outcome measure was expressed as a total efficacy value. This was gauged from the z-standardized area under the curve (AUC) values of the primary end-points (rhinitis score, bronchitis score, CGI-1 and general well-being). Adverse events, overall tolerability, vital signs and laboratory parameters were documented. A total of 259 patients were eligible to be evaluated (intention to treat; ITT). The primary efficacy parameters demonstrated the herbal product's superiority over placebo (P < 0.05). The effect size was 20.6% of the SD [90% confidence interval (CI) 0.04–41.1] in the ITT population and 23.1% (1.7–44.5) in the valid case population. In relation to general well-being, the effect size was 33.9% of the SD (12.5–55.3%, VC). The efficacy of the drug was most prominent in the subgroup of patients who started therapy at an early stage of their cold or with a symptom score of ≥4 (Fig. 6). In the drug group, patients suffering symptoms of at least moderate intensity at baseline showed a response rate (at least 50% improvement of the global score, day 5) of 55.3%, and those in the placebo group showed a response rate of 27.3% [P = 0.017; number needed to treat (NNT) = 3.5]. This study showed the therapeutic benefit and superiority of Esberitox versus placebo for decreasing the duration of the common cold and alleviating symptoms. A greater benefit can be expected if patients with the common cold are able to start taking the drug as early as practicable after manifestation of initial symptoms.


Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae): A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties.

Naser B, Bodinet C, Tegtmeier M, Lindequist U - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2005)

Improvement of rhinitis scores (congested nose, runny nose, sniffling, frequency of handkerchief use, frequency of sneezing). Mean symptom scores (baseline adjusted mean and SE) are shown for placebo (n = 57) and the Thuja-containing herbal remedy (n = 58). P-values for the differences between treatment groups are given for the patients with a symptom score of ≥4 at day 1 (repeated measures; co-variates at day 1).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1062158&req=5

fig6: Improvement of rhinitis scores (congested nose, runny nose, sniffling, frequency of handkerchief use, frequency of sneezing). Mean symptom scores (baseline adjusted mean and SE) are shown for placebo (n = 57) and the Thuja-containing herbal remedy (n = 58). P-values for the differences between treatment groups are given for the patients with a symptom score of ≥4 at day 1 (repeated measures; co-variates at day 1).
Mentions: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study (15 practitioners in Germany), patients suffering from acute common cold were randomized to receive Esberitox (Thuja daily dose corresponding to 6 mg three times daily (t.i.d.)] or placebo for 7–9 days (48). On a daily basis, the patients documented the intensity of 18 cold symptoms and their overall cold status on a 10-point scale and rated their general well-being using Welzel–Kohnen color scales. Additionally, a physician assessed the severity of illness on days 4 and 8 using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI-1). The main and confirmatory outcome measure was expressed as a total efficacy value. This was gauged from the z-standardized area under the curve (AUC) values of the primary end-points (rhinitis score, bronchitis score, CGI-1 and general well-being). Adverse events, overall tolerability, vital signs and laboratory parameters were documented. A total of 259 patients were eligible to be evaluated (intention to treat; ITT). The primary efficacy parameters demonstrated the herbal product's superiority over placebo (P < 0.05). The effect size was 20.6% of the SD [90% confidence interval (CI) 0.04–41.1] in the ITT population and 23.1% (1.7–44.5) in the valid case population. In relation to general well-being, the effect size was 33.9% of the SD (12.5–55.3%, VC). The efficacy of the drug was most prominent in the subgroup of patients who started therapy at an early stage of their cold or with a symptom score of ≥4 (Fig. 6). In the drug group, patients suffering symptoms of at least moderate intensity at baseline showed a response rate (at least 50% improvement of the global score, day 5) of 55.3%, and those in the placebo group showed a response rate of 27.3% [P = 0.017; number needed to treat (NNT) = 3.5]. This study showed the therapeutic benefit and superiority of Esberitox versus placebo for decreasing the duration of the common cold and alleviating symptoms. A greater benefit can be expected if patients with the common cold are able to start taking the drug as early as practicable after manifestation of initial symptoms.

Bottom Line: Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data.This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especially the different contents of essential oil (Thujone) in relation to different extraction procedures of this medicinal plant.Thuja's antiviral action and immunopharmacological potential, such as stimulatory and co-stimulatory effects on cytokine and antibody production and activation of macrophages and other immunocompetent cells, have been evaluated in numerous in vitro and in vivo investigations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Arbor vitae (Thuja occidentalis L.) is a native European tree widely used in homeopathy and evidence-based phytotherapy. Many reviews and monographs have been published on the herbal substance's description, mode of action and clinical use. However, no comprehensive evidence-based review is available. Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data. This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especially the different contents of essential oil (Thujone) in relation to different extraction procedures of this medicinal plant. Thuja's antiviral action and immunopharmacological potential, such as stimulatory and co-stimulatory effects on cytokine and antibody production and activation of macrophages and other immunocompetent cells, have been evaluated in numerous in vitro and in vivo investigations. Although no controlled trials have been conducted on Thuja occ alone, many clinical studies have been performed with a herbal medicinal product containing a special extract of Thuja occ and other immunostimulants, demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy and safety in respiratory tract infections.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus