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Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry.

Teixeira EW, Negri G, Meira RM, Message D, Salatino A - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2005)

Bottom Line: Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer.Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices.Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae) have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i) to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii) to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii) to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed.

No MeSH data available.


Leaf fragment in cross section in histological methacrylate preparation of resin mass collected from a corbicula of Africanized Apis mellifera on shoot apex of Baccharis dracunculifolia. Du, resiniferous duct; Ep, epiderm; GT, glandular trichome; P, phloem; X, xylem.
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fig3: Leaf fragment in cross section in histological methacrylate preparation of resin mass collected from a corbicula of Africanized Apis mellifera on shoot apex of Baccharis dracunculifolia. Du, resiniferous duct; Ep, epiderm; GT, glandular trichome; P, phloem; X, xylem.

Mentions: Figure 2 evidences the high degree of fragmentation of the material in the resin mass. Some details are relevant as diagnostic of the resin plant source. Resiniferous ducts are conspicuous in histological sections of leaves of Baccharis. Several ducts are apparent in Fig. 2, which shows a fragment of a young alecrim leaf from a resin mass. Another leaf fragment from a resin mass with a resiniferous duct in cross section is shown in Fig. 3; glandular and non-glandular trichomes are also visible. In Fig. 4, several leaf fragments in the residue of the propolis sample are seen, most with conspicuous ducts. Glandular and non-glandular trichomes of alecrim leaves were commonly seen. Viewed with polarized light, alecrim glandular trichomes show brilliant contents, which correspond to starch grains (Fig. 5) and were detected in histological preparations of green propolis (Fig. 6). Figures 2–5 evidence that the fragments correspond to young plant leaves, because the chlorenchyma in all cases is still undifferentiated, no palisade and spongy parenchyma being apparent.


Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry.

Teixeira EW, Negri G, Meira RM, Message D, Salatino A - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2005)

Leaf fragment in cross section in histological methacrylate preparation of resin mass collected from a corbicula of Africanized Apis mellifera on shoot apex of Baccharis dracunculifolia. Du, resiniferous duct; Ep, epiderm; GT, glandular trichome; P, phloem; X, xylem.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC1062148&req=5

fig3: Leaf fragment in cross section in histological methacrylate preparation of resin mass collected from a corbicula of Africanized Apis mellifera on shoot apex of Baccharis dracunculifolia. Du, resiniferous duct; Ep, epiderm; GT, glandular trichome; P, phloem; X, xylem.
Mentions: Figure 2 evidences the high degree of fragmentation of the material in the resin mass. Some details are relevant as diagnostic of the resin plant source. Resiniferous ducts are conspicuous in histological sections of leaves of Baccharis. Several ducts are apparent in Fig. 2, which shows a fragment of a young alecrim leaf from a resin mass. Another leaf fragment from a resin mass with a resiniferous duct in cross section is shown in Fig. 3; glandular and non-glandular trichomes are also visible. In Fig. 4, several leaf fragments in the residue of the propolis sample are seen, most with conspicuous ducts. Glandular and non-glandular trichomes of alecrim leaves were commonly seen. Viewed with polarized light, alecrim glandular trichomes show brilliant contents, which correspond to starch grains (Fig. 5) and were detected in histological preparations of green propolis (Fig. 6). Figures 2–5 evidence that the fragments correspond to young plant leaves, because the chlorenchyma in all cases is still undifferentiated, no palisade and spongy parenchyma being apparent.

Bottom Line: Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer.Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices.Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae) have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i) to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii) to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii) to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed.

No MeSH data available.