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Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation.

Acciarri N, Restaino F, Vitelli G, Perrone D, Zottini M, Pandolfini T, Spena A, Rotino G - BMC Biotechnol. (2002)

Bottom Line: The iaaM gene codes for tryptophan monoxygenase and confers auxin synthesis, while the DefH9 controlling regions drive expression of the gene specifically in the ovules and placenta.The main advantages of DefH9-iaaM eggplants are: i) improved fruit productivity (at least 30-35%) under both greenhouse and open field cultivation; ii) production of good quality (marketable) fruits during different types of cultivation; iii) seedless fruit with improved quality.Such advantages have been achieved without the use of either male or female sterility genes.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Institute for Vegetable Crops, Monsampolo del Tronto, AP, Italy. acciarri@libero.it

ABSTRACT

Background: Parthenocarpy, or fruit development in the absence of fertilization, has been genetically engineered in eggplant and in other horticultural species by using the DefH9-iaaM gene. The iaaM gene codes for tryptophan monoxygenase and confers auxin synthesis, while the DefH9 controlling regions drive expression of the gene specifically in the ovules and placenta. A previous greenhouse trial for winter production of genetically engineered (GM) parthenocarpic eggplants demonstrated a significant increase (an average of 33% increase) in fruit production concomitant with a reduction in cultivation costs.

Results: GM parthenocarpic eggplants have been evaluated in three field trials. Two greenhouse spring trials have shown that these plants outyielded the corresponding untransformed genotypes, while a summer trial has shown that improved fruit productivity in GM eggplants can also be achieved in open field cultivation. Since the fruits were always seedless, the quality of GM eggplant fruits was improved as well. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed during late stages of fruit development.

Conclusions: The DefH9-iaaM parthenocarpic gene is a biotechnological tool that enhances the agronomic value of all eggplant genotypes tested. The main advantages of DefH9-iaaM eggplants are: i) improved fruit productivity (at least 30-35%) under both greenhouse and open field cultivation; ii) production of good quality (marketable) fruits during different types of cultivation; iii) seedless fruit with improved quality. Such advantages have been achieved without the use of either male or female sterility genes.

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Southern blot analysis of transgenic eggplants. Numbers above the lanes indicate the independent transgenic plant DR2iaaM#28-1 (28), DR2iaaM#34-1 (34) and Tal1/1iaaM#1-1 (Tal1/1-1). Cont indicates untransformed plants, i.e. DR2 and Tal1/1, respectively. The probe used corresponds to the DefH9 regulatory region.
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Figure 4: Southern blot analysis of transgenic eggplants. Numbers above the lanes indicate the independent transgenic plant DR2iaaM#28-1 (28), DR2iaaM#34-1 (34) and Tal1/1iaaM#1-1 (Tal1/1-1). Cont indicates untransformed plants, i.e. DR2 and Tal1/1, respectively. The probe used corresponds to the DefH9 regulatory region.

Mentions: Trials were carried out in central Italy (Monsampolo del Tronto-AP) and in southern Italy (Pontecagnano-SA) (approval of the Italian Ministry of Health N° B/IT/97-29). The greenhouses were rather similar and made of galvanized steel and covered with plastic polyethylene (0.12 mm thick). An apparatus for drip-irrigation was used and the soil was completely mulched. A complete randomized block design with three replicate hybrid genotypes was adopted. Each experimental plot measured 3.12 m2 and contained eight plants in a double row. Transplanting was performed on March 3rd in southern Italy and on March 27th in central Italy. The P1, P2, P5, C1, C2 and the commercial Talina hybrids were employed. Transgenic parthenocarpic hybrids P1, P2 and P5 were obtained by crossing (as male parent) the primary transgenic plant DR2 iaaM #34-1 with the line Tal 1/1 (P1), the primary transgenic plant DR2 iaaM #28-1 with Tal 1/1 (P2) and the transgenic plant Tal 1/1 iaaM #1-1 with the line Tina (P5). The hybrids P1 and P2 are homologous to C1 (DR2 × Tal1/1), except for the presence of the DefH9-iaaM gene integrated in their genome. The transgenic hybrid P5 is homologous to its untransformed control C2 (Tal1/1 × Tina). DR2 and Tina are parental lines obtained through classical breeding, Tal1/1 is a double haploid line derived from anther culture of the F1 commercial cultivar Talina. The segregation of the marker gene nptII was checked by spraying the plants with kanamycin [14] and allowed for the conclusion that the transgenes segregate as a single locus in the backcrossed progenies of the three independent events analyzed (Tal iaaM 1-1: χ2 = 0.01065, P = 0.917; DR2 iaaM 34-1: χ2 = 0.0496 P = 0.824; DR2 iaaM 28-1 χ2 = 0.06467 P = 0.799). Southern blot analysis showed that DR2 iaaM 28-1 and 34-1 had a single copy of the transgene, while Tal iaaM 1-1 had three copies of the transgene (Fig 4). Since the interaction genotype/location was not significant for the yield, the data were computed as average of the two locations and subjected to analysis of variance according to a randomized complete block design. Duncan's Multiple Range Test (P = 0.05) was used for means separations.


Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation.

Acciarri N, Restaino F, Vitelli G, Perrone D, Zottini M, Pandolfini T, Spena A, Rotino G - BMC Biotechnol. (2002)

Southern blot analysis of transgenic eggplants. Numbers above the lanes indicate the independent transgenic plant DR2iaaM#28-1 (28), DR2iaaM#34-1 (34) and Tal1/1iaaM#1-1 (Tal1/1-1). Cont indicates untransformed plants, i.e. DR2 and Tal1/1, respectively. The probe used corresponds to the DefH9 regulatory region.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC101493&req=5

Figure 4: Southern blot analysis of transgenic eggplants. Numbers above the lanes indicate the independent transgenic plant DR2iaaM#28-1 (28), DR2iaaM#34-1 (34) and Tal1/1iaaM#1-1 (Tal1/1-1). Cont indicates untransformed plants, i.e. DR2 and Tal1/1, respectively. The probe used corresponds to the DefH9 regulatory region.
Mentions: Trials were carried out in central Italy (Monsampolo del Tronto-AP) and in southern Italy (Pontecagnano-SA) (approval of the Italian Ministry of Health N° B/IT/97-29). The greenhouses were rather similar and made of galvanized steel and covered with plastic polyethylene (0.12 mm thick). An apparatus for drip-irrigation was used and the soil was completely mulched. A complete randomized block design with three replicate hybrid genotypes was adopted. Each experimental plot measured 3.12 m2 and contained eight plants in a double row. Transplanting was performed on March 3rd in southern Italy and on March 27th in central Italy. The P1, P2, P5, C1, C2 and the commercial Talina hybrids were employed. Transgenic parthenocarpic hybrids P1, P2 and P5 were obtained by crossing (as male parent) the primary transgenic plant DR2 iaaM #34-1 with the line Tal 1/1 (P1), the primary transgenic plant DR2 iaaM #28-1 with Tal 1/1 (P2) and the transgenic plant Tal 1/1 iaaM #1-1 with the line Tina (P5). The hybrids P1 and P2 are homologous to C1 (DR2 × Tal1/1), except for the presence of the DefH9-iaaM gene integrated in their genome. The transgenic hybrid P5 is homologous to its untransformed control C2 (Tal1/1 × Tina). DR2 and Tina are parental lines obtained through classical breeding, Tal1/1 is a double haploid line derived from anther culture of the F1 commercial cultivar Talina. The segregation of the marker gene nptII was checked by spraying the plants with kanamycin [14] and allowed for the conclusion that the transgenes segregate as a single locus in the backcrossed progenies of the three independent events analyzed (Tal iaaM 1-1: χ2 = 0.01065, P = 0.917; DR2 iaaM 34-1: χ2 = 0.0496 P = 0.824; DR2 iaaM 28-1 χ2 = 0.06467 P = 0.799). Southern blot analysis showed that DR2 iaaM 28-1 and 34-1 had a single copy of the transgene, while Tal iaaM 1-1 had three copies of the transgene (Fig 4). Since the interaction genotype/location was not significant for the yield, the data were computed as average of the two locations and subjected to analysis of variance according to a randomized complete block design. Duncan's Multiple Range Test (P = 0.05) was used for means separations.

Bottom Line: The iaaM gene codes for tryptophan monoxygenase and confers auxin synthesis, while the DefH9 controlling regions drive expression of the gene specifically in the ovules and placenta.The main advantages of DefH9-iaaM eggplants are: i) improved fruit productivity (at least 30-35%) under both greenhouse and open field cultivation; ii) production of good quality (marketable) fruits during different types of cultivation; iii) seedless fruit with improved quality.Such advantages have been achieved without the use of either male or female sterility genes.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Institute for Vegetable Crops, Monsampolo del Tronto, AP, Italy. acciarri@libero.it

ABSTRACT

Background: Parthenocarpy, or fruit development in the absence of fertilization, has been genetically engineered in eggplant and in other horticultural species by using the DefH9-iaaM gene. The iaaM gene codes for tryptophan monoxygenase and confers auxin synthesis, while the DefH9 controlling regions drive expression of the gene specifically in the ovules and placenta. A previous greenhouse trial for winter production of genetically engineered (GM) parthenocarpic eggplants demonstrated a significant increase (an average of 33% increase) in fruit production concomitant with a reduction in cultivation costs.

Results: GM parthenocarpic eggplants have been evaluated in three field trials. Two greenhouse spring trials have shown that these plants outyielded the corresponding untransformed genotypes, while a summer trial has shown that improved fruit productivity in GM eggplants can also be achieved in open field cultivation. Since the fruits were always seedless, the quality of GM eggplant fruits was improved as well. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed during late stages of fruit development.

Conclusions: The DefH9-iaaM parthenocarpic gene is a biotechnological tool that enhances the agronomic value of all eggplant genotypes tested. The main advantages of DefH9-iaaM eggplants are: i) improved fruit productivity (at least 30-35%) under both greenhouse and open field cultivation; ii) production of good quality (marketable) fruits during different types of cultivation; iii) seedless fruit with improved quality. Such advantages have been achieved without the use of either male or female sterility genes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus