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Phylogenetic relationships between Hapalemur species and subspecies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

Fausser JL, Prosper P, Donati G, Ramanamanjato JB, Rumpler Y - BMC Evol. Biol. (2002)

Bottom Line: A new chromosomal polymorphic variant from the region of Ranomafana, H. griseus ssp, has been analysed and was found in both clades.Our results support the raising of H. g. meridionalis to the specific rank H. meridionalis, while neither cytogenetic nor molecular evidences support the raising of H. g. alaotrensis to a species rank despite its morphological characteristics.This suggests the existence of an ancestral polymorphism or an introgression of mitochondrial DNA between subspecies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut d'Embryologie, EA3428, 67085 Strasbourg, France. marguerite.lavaux@embryo-ulp.u-strasbg.fr

ABSTRACT

Background: Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Hapalemur remains controversial, particularly within the Hapalemur griseus species group. In order to obtain more information on the taxonomic status within this genus, and particularly in the cytogenetic distinct subspecies group of Hapalemur griseus, 357 bp sequence of cytochrome b and 438 bp of 12S mitochondrial DNAs were analyzed on a sample of animals captured in areas extending from the north to the south-east of Madagascar. This sample covers all cytogenetically defined types recognized of the genus Hapalemur.

Results: Phylogenetic trees and distances analyses demonstrate a first emergence of Hapalemur simus followed by H. aureus which is the sister clade of the H. griseus subspecies. Hapalemur griseus is composed of 4 subspecies separated into two clades. The first contains H. g. griseus, H. g. alaotrensis and H. g. occidentalis. The second consists of H. g. meridionalis. A new chromosomal polymorphic variant from the region of Ranomafana, H. griseus ssp, has been analysed and was found in both clades.

Conclusions: Our results support the raising of H. g. meridionalis to the specific rank H. meridionalis, while neither cytogenetic nor molecular evidences support the raising of H. g. alaotrensis to a species rank despite its morphological characteristics. The new cytotype H. g. ssp which has been previously characterized by cytogenetic studies contains animals clustering either with the group of Hapalemur griseus griseus or with that of Hapalemur meridionalis. This suggests the existence of an ancestral polymorphism or an introgression of mitochondrial DNA between subspecies.

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Phylogram based on 357 bp sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Bootstrap method with neighbor joining search and Kimura two parameter distance correction obtained with 10000 replications are used. The tree is rooted using an Eulemur macaco flavifrons (EMF) sequence and the comparisons are made between the haplotypes. The letter behind each taxon indicates the capture locality. For abbreviations see Figure 1.
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Figure 3: Phylogram based on 357 bp sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Bootstrap method with neighbor joining search and Kimura two parameter distance correction obtained with 10000 replications are used. The tree is rooted using an Eulemur macaco flavifrons (EMF) sequence and the comparisons are made between the haplotypes. The letter behind each taxon indicates the capture locality. For abbreviations see Figure 1.

Mentions: Kimura two parameter distances [18] and absolute distances calculated with the different haplotypes (Table 1) as phylogenetic trees constructed with the computer program Pylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (PAUP) 4.0b.4a [19] (Figs 2, 3, 4, 5) were used to compare the different Hapalemur species and subspecies. Neighbor-joining analyses of cytochrome b haplotypes demonstrated that H. simus emerged first followed by H. aureus which is the sister clade of the H. griseus subspecies. Inside H. griseus subspecies, two subclades are present and the H. griseus ssp (HGssp) are distributed in both the subclades (Figs 2, 3). For this reason, the H. griseus ssp were separated in HGsspa and Hgsspb. The first subclade (S1) contains HGA, HGG, HGsspa and HGO. The second subclade (S2) is composed of HGM and HGsspb. Maximum parsimony analyses (data not shown) demonstrated the same topology, unless the bootstrap support for S1 dropped from 94 to 66.


Phylogenetic relationships between Hapalemur species and subspecies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

Fausser JL, Prosper P, Donati G, Ramanamanjato JB, Rumpler Y - BMC Evol. Biol. (2002)

Phylogram based on 357 bp sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Bootstrap method with neighbor joining search and Kimura two parameter distance correction obtained with 10000 replications are used. The tree is rooted using an Eulemur macaco flavifrons (EMF) sequence and the comparisons are made between the haplotypes. The letter behind each taxon indicates the capture locality. For abbreviations see Figure 1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC101410&req=5

Figure 3: Phylogram based on 357 bp sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Bootstrap method with neighbor joining search and Kimura two parameter distance correction obtained with 10000 replications are used. The tree is rooted using an Eulemur macaco flavifrons (EMF) sequence and the comparisons are made between the haplotypes. The letter behind each taxon indicates the capture locality. For abbreviations see Figure 1.
Mentions: Kimura two parameter distances [18] and absolute distances calculated with the different haplotypes (Table 1) as phylogenetic trees constructed with the computer program Pylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (PAUP) 4.0b.4a [19] (Figs 2, 3, 4, 5) were used to compare the different Hapalemur species and subspecies. Neighbor-joining analyses of cytochrome b haplotypes demonstrated that H. simus emerged first followed by H. aureus which is the sister clade of the H. griseus subspecies. Inside H. griseus subspecies, two subclades are present and the H. griseus ssp (HGssp) are distributed in both the subclades (Figs 2, 3). For this reason, the H. griseus ssp were separated in HGsspa and Hgsspb. The first subclade (S1) contains HGA, HGG, HGsspa and HGO. The second subclade (S2) is composed of HGM and HGsspb. Maximum parsimony analyses (data not shown) demonstrated the same topology, unless the bootstrap support for S1 dropped from 94 to 66.

Bottom Line: A new chromosomal polymorphic variant from the region of Ranomafana, H. griseus ssp, has been analysed and was found in both clades.Our results support the raising of H. g. meridionalis to the specific rank H. meridionalis, while neither cytogenetic nor molecular evidences support the raising of H. g. alaotrensis to a species rank despite its morphological characteristics.This suggests the existence of an ancestral polymorphism or an introgression of mitochondrial DNA between subspecies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut d'Embryologie, EA3428, 67085 Strasbourg, France. marguerite.lavaux@embryo-ulp.u-strasbg.fr

ABSTRACT

Background: Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Hapalemur remains controversial, particularly within the Hapalemur griseus species group. In order to obtain more information on the taxonomic status within this genus, and particularly in the cytogenetic distinct subspecies group of Hapalemur griseus, 357 bp sequence of cytochrome b and 438 bp of 12S mitochondrial DNAs were analyzed on a sample of animals captured in areas extending from the north to the south-east of Madagascar. This sample covers all cytogenetically defined types recognized of the genus Hapalemur.

Results: Phylogenetic trees and distances analyses demonstrate a first emergence of Hapalemur simus followed by H. aureus which is the sister clade of the H. griseus subspecies. Hapalemur griseus is composed of 4 subspecies separated into two clades. The first contains H. g. griseus, H. g. alaotrensis and H. g. occidentalis. The second consists of H. g. meridionalis. A new chromosomal polymorphic variant from the region of Ranomafana, H. griseus ssp, has been analysed and was found in both clades.

Conclusions: Our results support the raising of H. g. meridionalis to the specific rank H. meridionalis, while neither cytogenetic nor molecular evidences support the raising of H. g. alaotrensis to a species rank despite its morphological characteristics. The new cytotype H. g. ssp which has been previously characterized by cytogenetic studies contains animals clustering either with the group of Hapalemur griseus griseus or with that of Hapalemur meridionalis. This suggests the existence of an ancestral polymorphism or an introgression of mitochondrial DNA between subspecies.

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