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Cytotoxic Brain Edema

Smirniotopoulos, M.D. JGSM - MedPix (2006)

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Affiliation: Uniformed Services University

ABSTRACT

There are three types of intraaxial brain edema: » Cytotoxic (intracellular) » Interstitial Vasogenic (extracellular) » Interstitial Hydrostatic (extracellular) Cytotoxic edema occurs when the energy-dependent cell membrane pump fails. The primary causes of failure include depletion of energy stores and poisoning of the required enzymes. Once the cell membrane pump fails, there is a net movement of water from the interstitial space into the cells, causing them to swell. The movement of water into a more restricted space, limited to the cell's boundaries, causes a restriction in diffusion. Cytotoxic edema also occurs when there is water intoxication; and also with encephalitis, such as herpes. The gray matter is preferentially affected, showing a decreased signal on T1W images, increased T2, bright on DWI, and lowered diffusion constant on ADC map images. One potent visual analogy for cytotoxic edema occurs when a raisin is allowed to soak in water. Over several hours, the raisin will swell - just like neurons swell in a cerebral infarction.

No MeSH data available.


These raisins have been in normal tap water for an hour.
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MPX2782_synpic28757: These raisins have been in normal tap water for an hour.


Cytotoxic Brain Edema

Smirniotopoulos, M.D. JGSM - MedPix (2006)

These raisins have been in normal tap water for an hour.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=MPX2782&req=5

MPX2782_synpic28757: These raisins have been in normal tap water for an hour.

View Article: MedPix Image - MedPix Topic

Affiliation: Uniformed Services University

ABSTRACT

There are three types of intraaxial brain edema: » Cytotoxic (intracellular) » Interstitial Vasogenic (extracellular) » Interstitial Hydrostatic (extracellular) Cytotoxic edema occurs when the energy-dependent cell membrane pump fails. The primary causes of failure include depletion of energy stores and poisoning of the required enzymes. Once the cell membrane pump fails, there is a net movement of water from the interstitial space into the cells, causing them to swell. The movement of water into a more restricted space, limited to the cell's boundaries, causes a restriction in diffusion. Cytotoxic edema also occurs when there is water intoxication; and also with encephalitis, such as herpes. The gray matter is preferentially affected, showing a decreased signal on T1W images, increased T2, bright on DWI, and lowered diffusion constant on ADC map images. One potent visual analogy for cytotoxic edema occurs when a raisin is allowed to soak in water. Over several hours, the raisin will swell - just like neurons swell in a cerebral infarction.

No MeSH data available.