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The Harvard Unit at the American Ambulance (World War I Hospital) at Lycee Pasteur Neuilly, Paris, April 1915. Standing: Wilson, Benet, Barton, Rogers, Coller, Cutler, Smith-Petersen. Nurses: Wilson, Cox, Martin, Parks. Seated: Boothby, Beth Vincent, Greenough, Harvey Cushing, Strong, Osgood39. Harvey Cushing's journal today fills nine bound volumes (one million words) in his library at Yale. Elliott Cutler succeeded Harvey Cushing as Moseley Professor of Surgery at Harvard, and during World War II was on the Allied Surgical Consultants committee with Sir Ian Fraser59 and my father60.
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fig6: The Harvard Unit at the American Ambulance (World War I Hospital) at Lycee Pasteur Neuilly, Paris, April 1915. Standing: Wilson, Benet, Barton, Rogers, Coller, Cutler, Smith-Petersen. Nurses: Wilson, Cox, Martin, Parks. Seated: Boothby, Beth Vincent, Greenough, Harvey Cushing, Strong, Osgood39. Harvey Cushing's journal today fills nine bound volumes (one million words) in his library at Yale. Elliott Cutler succeeded Harvey Cushing as Moseley Professor of Surgery at Harvard, and during World War II was on the Allied Surgical Consultants committee with Sir Ian Fraser59 and my father60.

Mentions: After the declaration of World War I on August 3, 1914, Roger I. Lee's MGH surgical colleague Beth Vincent (Fig. 6) was the instigator of blood transfusion of the wounded. This he did as a volunteer in Paris using the Harvard Kimpton paraffin-coated transfusion apparatus21,61. Alexis Carrel (Fig. 7), already a Nobel Laureate in 1912, followed Vincent's example, also in Paris, but used direct artery to vein anastomosis, as did fellow volunteer in Paris, George W Crile11,13,14.

Blood and War

Hedley-Whyte J, Milamed DR - Ulster Med J (2010)

Bottom Line: Physician Roger I.Geoffrey Keynes was taught the techniques of blood transfusion by Dr. Benjamin Harrison Alton of Harvard at a Casualty Clearing Station near Albert at the time of the Battle of Passchendaele.Professor "Robby" Robertson, DSO, Sir Geoffrey Keynes and Sir Thomas Houston established blood banking.

Affiliation: Harvard University, Boston, MA 02132-4927, USA. john_hedley-whyte@hms.harvard.edu

ABSTRACT
In 1894 Ulsterman and pathologist Almroth Wright described the citation of blood. Twenty-one years later it was introduced into wartime and clinical practice. Harvard Medical School had a large part in providing Colonel Andrew Fullerton, later Professor of Surgery, Queen's Belfast, with the intellectual and practical help for the Allies to deploy blood on the post-Somme Western Front and in Salonika. The key investigators and clinicians were Americans and Canadians who with Fullerton and Wright instructed the Allies. The key enablers were two Harvard-trained surgeons surnamed Robertson-Oswald H. ("Robby") and L. Bruce (no relation). Physician Roger I. Lee of Harvard, surgeon George W Crile of Cleveland, Peyton Rous of the Rockefeller Institute and Richard Lewisohn of Mount Sinai Hospital, both located in the Upper East Side of New York City, played key roles.By Armistice in 1918, indirect citrated nutrient-enhanced blood transfusion was widely used by the Allies. Geoffrey Keynes was taught the techniques of blood transfusion by Dr. Benjamin Harrison Alton of Harvard at a Casualty Clearing Station near Albert at the time of the Battle of Passchendaele. Professor "Robby" Robertson, DSO, Sir Geoffrey Keynes and Sir Thomas Houston established blood banking.

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